organic chem lec 1

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organic chem lec 1
2014-03-02 18:56:54
mcat ochem

basic level organic
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  1. The three rules to forming the lewis dot structure:
    • 1. find the total number of valence electrons for all atoms in the molecule.
    • 2. Use one pair of electrons to form one bond between each atom.
    • 3. Arrange the remaining electrons around the atoms to satisfy the duet rule for hydrogen and the octet rule for other atoms.
  2. The electrons on the outer most level of an atom. It also let u know how many bonds an atom can make.
    valence electrons
  3. total # of valence electrons - # of bonds - # of lone pair electrons =
    formal charge
  4. This indicates the number of pairs of hydrogens a compound requires in order to become a saturated alkane.
    Index of hydrogen deficiency
  5. formula for index of hydrogen deficiency
    • (2n+2)-x
    •      2
  6. Carbon-Carbon single bond or methane

  7. Carbon-Carbon double bond

  8. H-C=C-H

    carbon-carbon triple bond
  9. H3-C-O-H

  10. R-O-R

  11. H3-C-N-H2
  12. H3-C-CH=O
  13. (H3C)2-C=O
  14. H3C-C=O
    Carboxylic acid
  15. H3C-C=O
  16. H3-C-C=O
  17. Name the prefix for the 1-10 carbons
    meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec
  18. CH3-CH3-CH3-
  19. CH3-CH3-CH3
  20. CH3-CH3-CH3-CH3-
  21. CH3-CH3-CH3
  22. CH3-CH3-CH3-
  23. CH3
  24. This forms when the bonding pair of electrons are localized directly between two bonding atoms. Any single bond, double bond or triple contain one of this
    sigma bond
  25. Double bonds are made by adding one of these bonds to a sigma bond.
    Triple bonds are made by adding two of these to a sigma bond.
    pi bonds (more reactive than sigma bond)
  26. Name the hybridization, bond angles and shape for: 2 bonds, 3 bonds, 4 bonds, 5 bonds, 6 bonds
    • sp 180o, linear
    • sp2 120o, trigonal planar
    • sp3, 109.5, tetrahedral
    • sp3d, 90 & 120, trigonal-bipyramidal
    • sp3d2, 90, octahedral
  27. Molecules containing delocalized electrons can be represented by a combination of two or more lewis structures called::
    resonance structure
  28. This occurs when the center of positive charge on a molecule or bond does not coincide withe the center of negative charge
    dipole moment
  29. This type of dipole moment causes the polar molecule or ion to create an electric field, which pushes the electrons and nuclei in opposite directions, separating the centers of positive and negative charge.
    induced dipoles
  30. this dipole moment arise because the electrons in a bond move about the orbital and at any given moment may not be distributed exactly between the two bonding atoms even when the atoms are identical
    instantaneous dipole
  31. This attraction between separate molecules occur solely due to dipole moments
    intermolecular attractions
  32. This bond is the strongest type of dipole-dipole interaction. It is responsible for the high boiling point of water

    H-O-H ---- O=C-C
    hydrogen bond
  33. __________ is the weakest dipole-dipole force. It is between two instantaneous dipoles.
    It is responsible for the phase changes for non-polar molecules.
    EX: H-H --- H-H
    London Dispersion Forces
  34. These isomers are not true isomers, they are different spatial orientations of the same molecule.
    conformational isomers or conformers
  35. This isomers are the simplest form of isomers. They have the same molecular formula but different bond to bond connectivity.
    structural isomer
  36. These molecules differ in their reflections
    chiral molecules
  37. Any carbon is ____________ when it is bonded to four different substituents.
  38. In chemistry, the "handedness" of a carbon is called
  39. The only way to physically describe the orientation of atoms about a chiral center such as a chiral carbon.
    There are two different configurations: R (right) or S (left)
    absolute configuration
  40. Two molecules have the same ___________ about a carbon if they differ by only one substituent and the other substituents are oriented identically about the carbon.
    relative configuration
  41. The direction and the degree to which a compound rotates plane-polarized light is given by its ____________.
    observed rotation
  42. A ___________ screens out photons with all but orientation of electric field
  43. The resulting light from the polarimeter consists of photons with their electric fields oriented in the same direction. This light is called _______
    plane-polarized light
  44. These stereoisomers have the same molecular formula, have the same bond-to-bond connectivity, are mirror images  of each other, but are not the same molecule.
  45. Two molecules with the same molecular formula and the same bond to bond connectivity that are not the same compound are called ______.
    There are two types: enantiomers and diastereomers
  46. When enantiomers are mixed together in equal concentrations, the resulting mixture is called ___________
    a racemic mixture
  47. For these stereoisomers, they have the same chemical and physical characteristics except for two cases: 1. reactions with other chiral compounds; 2. reactions with polarized light.
  48. These stereoisomers have the same molecular formula, have the same bond to bond connectivity, are not mirror images, and are not the same compound.
  49. These special type of diastereomers exist due to hindered rotation about a bond. Rotation may be hindered due to a ring structure or a double or triple bond.
    geometric isomer
  50. Molecules with same side substituents are called __________

    Have a dipole moment
    have a higher boiling point b/c have stronger intermolecular forces
    have lower melting point b/c don't form crystals
  51. Molecules with opposite-side substituents are called ___________
    Do not have a dipole moment
  52. The substituent groups in the cis position may crowd each other; this condition is known ___________
    steric hindrance
  53. Two chiral centers in a single molecule may offset each other creating an optically inactive molecule.
    They have a plane of symmetry thru their centers which divides them into two halves that are mirror images to each other
    Such a compound is known as a
    meso compound
  54. Diastereomers that differ at only one chiral carbon are called __________