System Block 3 Final 2

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Haczar
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262814
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System Block 3 Final 2
Updated:
2014-02-21 20:19:43
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Musculoskeletal Bone Joints
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Rubin's MSK Bone Joint
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  1. Chondroblastoma
  2. Osteosarcoma
  3. Chondrosarcoma
  4. Chondrosarcoma
  5. Giant Cell Tumor
  6. Ewing Sarcoma
  7. slowly progressive destruction of articular cartilage that affects weight-bearing joints and fibers of older persons or the joints of younger persons subjected to trauma
    osteoarthritis
  8. Destruction of foot joints in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy
    Charcot joint
  9. systemic, chronic inflammatory disease in which chronic polyarthritis involves diarthrodial joints symmetrically and bilaterally
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  10. Seronegative arthritis linked to HLA-B27
    Spondyloarthropathy
  11. inflammatory arthropathy of the vertebral column and sacroiliac joints. begins at sacroilliac joints bilaterally then ascends the spinal column
    Ankylosing Spondylitis
  12. Triad includes: Seronegative polyarthritis, Conjunctivitis, nonspecific urethritis

    Cant see, Cant pee, Cant climb a tree
    Reiter syndrome
  13. Seropositive arthritis in children, HLA-D4 psoitive
    Juvenile Arthritis
  14. Disorder of Uric Acid Metabolism, usually from a high purine diet. Associated with renal stones and needle-shaped urate crystals in synovium
    Gout
  15. acumulation of a compound in synovial membranes resulting in pseudogout, and chondrocalcinosis, and inflammation of synovial fluid in ligaments and tendons
    Calcium Pyrophosphatase Dihydrate Desposition Disease
  16. deposits appear as chalky white areas on cartilaginous surfaces. Microscopically contain coffin shaped crystals  and have weak positive birefringence under polarized light
    Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Depositon Disease
  17. thin-walled simple cyst containing clear mucinous fluid occuring most commonly of the extensor surfaces of the hands and feet, especially the wrist
    Ganglion cyst
  18. Hyaline cartilage nodules form in the synovium
    Synovial Chondromatosis
  19. Small, multinodular, smooth contoured, partially encapsulated, exophytic mass attached to a tendon sheath. invades the joint and erodes the bone. It is composed of bland mononuclear cells.
    Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor
  20. rapidly growing reactive lesion that probably results from trauma and commonly affects superficial tissues of the forearm, trunk, and back
    Nodular Fasciitis
  21. locally invasive, slowly growing mass that may occur virtually anywhere. Microscopic examination reveals sheets and interdigitating fascicles of benign-appearing spindle cells with little mitotic activity
    Fibromatosis
  22. Fibromatosis of the hands in the palmar fascia leading to contractions of the 4th and 5th digits
    Palmar fibromatosis (Dupuytren contracture)
  23. Fibromatosis characterized by induration of the penile shaft causing it to curve leading to urethral obstruction and painful erection.
    Peyronie disease
  24. locally aggressive proliferation of fibroblast which is most affected on the ulnar side of hand
    Dupuytren's Tumor (fibromatosis)
  25. Inmature proliferation of fibroblasts characterized by spindle cells in a storiform pattern causing swelling pain and pathologica fractures
    Fibrosarcoma
  26. Associated to scars, and radiation resulting in undifferentiated cells, known as the most common soft tissue malignant tumor
    Pleomorphic Sarcoma
  27. Encapsulated adipocyte mass usually located on the upper half of the body
    Lipoma
  28. Small tumor composed of mature adipose connective tissue and a mixture of dilated capillaries making it difficult for resection
    angiolipoma
  29. Tumor composed of adipose tissue that may become extremely large with a high risk of metastasis
    Liposarcoma
  30. Specific marker: MyoD1
    Rhadomyosarcoma
  31. Tumor of muscles attached to bones located in the head and neck, urogenital tract, arms/legs that can display features of striated muscle differentiation
    Rhadomyosarcoma
  32. Tumor contains polyhedral and spindle-shaped tumor cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and deeply esoinophilic cytoplasm
    Rhadomyosarcoma
  33. soft tissue tumor arising from subcutaneous tissue or from blood vessel walls in deep somatic tissues (uterus, esophagus)
    Leiomyoma
  34. Tumor cells are arranged n fascicles, often with palisaded nuclei. Smooth muscle tumor characterized by poorly differentiation and increased mitosis. Located in wall of blood vessels in soft tissue of extremities or retroperitoneum
    Leiomyosarcoma
  35. Smooth muscle tumor predominately in immunocompromised patients
    EBV-associated smooth muscle tumor
  36. Tumor associated with tendon sheaths, bursae and joint capsules. Most commonly in the knee and is characterized by spindle cells and gland epithelial-like tissue
    Synovial Sarcoma
  37. Inflammation of synovium that could be related to lupus
    sinovitis
  38. Biphasic pattern tumor
    Synovial Sarcoma
  39. Inflammation seen in space in hands or wrist affected 3-4 tendons seen as the trigger finger sign
    Tenosinovitis
  40. Chronic pain in trigger points characterized by fatigue, sleep disturbance and joint stiffness
    Fibromyalgia
  41. Calcium pyrophosphatase dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD)
  42. Calcium pyrophosphatase dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD)
  43. Nodular Fascitis
  44. Fibromatosis
  45. Fibrosarcoma
  46. Pleomorphic Sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma)
  47. lipoma
  48. Liposarcoma
  49. Rhadomyosarcoma
  50. Leiomyosarcoma
  51. Synovial Sarcoma
  52. progressive degeneration of muscles, particularly of the pelvic and shoulder girdles (proximal muscle). Serum creatine kinase increased
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  53. progressive degeneration of muscles, particularly of the pelvic and shoulder girdles. Serum creatine kinase increased MILDER FORM
    Becker muscular dystrophy
  54. mutation of Xp21 gene that codes for dystrophin
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  55. Proximal muscles are affected first and distal muscle late, muscle weakness, myoglobulinuria, pain, myotonia, increased CPK
    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
  56. First few months of birth with hypotonia, weakness, feeding difficulty, and respiratory insufficency
    Bethlem Myopathy
  57. slowly progressive muscle weakness and stiffness are seen, principally in the distal limbs. It is also typical to see facial and neck weakness as well as ptosis (CONGENITAL)
    DM1
  58. High oxidative type 1 fibers with cores affecting majority of fibers associated with malignant hyperthermia
    Central Core Disease
  59. Congenital hereditary neuromuscular disorder characterized by floppy and hypotonic babies with non-progressive muscle weakness and scoliosis
    Nemaline Myopathy
  60. Muscle weakness associated with hypotonia, weakness, respiratory distress with predominance of type 1 fibers with bilateral ptosis
    Central Nuclear Myopathy
  61. CD8 mediated muscle damage leading to fibrosis with insidious proximal and symmetric muscle weakness. Associated with sclerodactily
    Polymyositis
  62. Slow progressive weakness and wasting of both distal and proximal muscles characterized by basophilic granular material seen at the edge of vaculoes within muscle fibers
    Inclusion Body Myositis
  63. Deposition of immune complexes of IgG,IgM and complement components including CD4 in muscle fibers. Intramuscular blood vessels exhibit endothelial hyperplasia, fibrin thrombi and obliteration of capillaries.
    Dermatomyositis
  64. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  65. Central Core Disease
  66. Central Nuclear Myopathy
  67. Rod (nemaline) Myopathy
  68. Acquired autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal muscular fatigability and caused by antibodies to the acetylcholine (Ach) receptor at the myoneural junction
    Myasthenia Gravis
  69. Dermatomyositis
  70. paraneoplastic disorder that manifests as muscle weakness, wasting and fatigability of proximal limbs and trunk. Defect in Ach release at nerve terminals. IgG autoantibodies target voltage sensitive calcium channels expressed in motor nerve terminals.
    Lamber-Eaton syndrome
  71. Defect in the processing of glycogen synthesis or breakdown within muscles, liver and cells. Associated with muscles weakness, myopathy, exercise intolerance
    Glycogen Storage Disease
  72. progressive proximal muscle weakness and atrophy associated with liquid droplets in sarcoplasm of type 1 muscle fibers trsulting in harmful amounts of lipids accumulating in cells and tissues
    Lipid Myopathies
  73. Ragged red fibers associated with unexplained seizures, low blood counts, dystonia, and progressive muscle weakness and multiorgan involvement
    Mitochondrial diseases
  74. Mutation in gene that reguates sodium and calcium channels associated with Flat T waves
    Hypokalemic Familial Periodic Paralysis
  75. Dissolution of skeletal muscle fibers resulting in sweating, fever, pain, weakness and myoglobinuria commonly because of extreme physical exercise
    Rhabdomyolysis
  76. Genetic disease that attacks motor neurons. Caused by genetic defect in the SMN1 gene and presents with arreflexia, muscle weakness, hypotony, bell-shaped torso
    Spinal Muscular Atrophy
  77. endogenous corticosteroid toxicity associated with proximal muscle weakness
    Type 2 fiber atrophy
  78. High dose steroids + neuromuscular blockers which can cause a myosin heavy chain depletion syndrome
    Critical Illness Myopathy
  79. Infants show progressive and severe weakness and seldom survive beyond 1 year of life in a type of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
    Werdnig-Hoffman Disease
  80. Muscle biopsy shows type grouping and is usually have limb-girdle muscular dystrophy the type of spinal muscular atrophy that affects adults
    Kugelberg-Welander Disease
  81. Lipid Storage Myopathy
  82. Werdnig-Hoffman disease
  83. Type 2 fiber atrophy
  84. Polymyositis
  85. inclusion body myositis
  86. denervation
  87. A 4-year old boy is brought to the physician by his parents because he falls a lot, cannot jump, and tires easily. Physical examination reveals weakness and the pelvic and shoulder girdle and enlargement of the child's calf muscles. The serum level of creatine kinase elevated. A biopsy of calf muscle reveals marked variation in size and shape of the muscle fibers. There are foci of muscle fiber necrosis, myophagocytosis, regenerating fibers, and fibrosis. Which of the following is most likely cause of death expected in this patient?

    A. Rhabdomyosarcoma
    B. pulmonary embolism
    C. respiratory insufficiency
    D. disseminated intravascular coagulation
    E. dissecting aortic aneurysm
    C. respiratory insufficiency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Molecular diagnostic assays performed on muscle biopsy from the patient with respiratory insufficiency would show alterations and the length of the primary transcript for which of the following muscle associated proteins?

    A. Creatine Kinase
    B. Glycogen Phophorylase
    C. Demin
    D. Myosin
    E. Dystrophin
    E. Dystrophin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. A 10-year-old girl complains of persistent redness of the skin over her knuckles and around the nail beds. She describes easy for taking fatigability and can rise only with difficulty from a squatting position. Physical examination reveals erythema over the knuckles and a heliotropic rash. Almost the biopsy shows infiltrates of B & T lymphocytes around blood vessels and in connective tissue of the perimysium. Elevated serum levels of which of the following would be expected in this patient?

    A. Alkaline phoshatase
    B. Alpha-fetoprotein
    C. Carcinoembryonic antigen
    D. Creatine kinase
    E. Urea-nitrogen
    Creatine kinase (dermatomyositis)
  90. A 25-year-old woman complains of weakness and easy fatigability, which is the most pronounced in the late afternoon. She describes difficulty reading and tiredness while watching television. She has problems chewing and swallowing and loses her voice while talking. Physical examination reveals ptosis and to diplopia. Laboratory studies would most likely demonstrate serum autoantibodies directed against which of the following proteins?

    A. Desmin
    B. Acetylcholine receptor
    C. Troponin
    D. Dystrophin
    E. Phosphodiesterase
    B. Acetylcholine receptor (Myasthenia Gravis)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. A 60-year-old man recovering from a flu complains of March fatigability. He reports that he cannot climb stairs two at a time as he used to. He also describes pain in his thighs. In muscle biopsy demonstrates a mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate chiefly in the end of endomysium. Immunostaining shows that the most of these inflammatory cells are CD8 T lymphocytes. Which is the appropriate diagnosis?

    A. Werdnig-Hoffman disease
    B. Myotonic Dystrophy
    C. Polymyositis
    D. Dermatomyositis
    E. Myasthenia Gravis
    C. Polymyositis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. A 60-year-old man who has been been treated for lung cancer complains of a rash on his chest and pain in his upper arms and calves. He cannot raise his arms and climbs the stairs only with difficulty. A muscle biopsy shows perivascular infiltrates of left the sites and plasma cells extending in between muscle fibers. Immunofluorescence reveals an immune complexes in the walls of intramuscular blood vessels. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

    A. Becker muscular dystrophy
    B. Dermatomyositis
    C. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
    D. Myasthenia Gravis
    E. Toxi myopathy
    B. Dermatomyositis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. A 40-year-old man presents with muscle weakness. He cannot open his hand for a handshake and cannot extend his arm after flexing it. On physical examination, he has marked atrophy of leg and arm muscles, ptosis, and a fixed facial expression. There is testicular atrophy. Laboratory  studies demonstrate mild diabetes. A muscle biopsy reveals atrophy of type I fibers, hypertrophy of type II fibers, and numerous fibers with centrally located nuclei. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

    A. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    B. Dermatomyositis
    C. Myotonic dystrophy
    D. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
    E. Myasthenia gravis
    C. Myotonic dystrophy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. A 42-year-old woman presents with muscle weakness. She has difficulty climbing stairs and lately tires while combing her hair. A muscle biopsy demonstrates lymphocytic infiltration with single fiber necrosis. In addition, muscle fibers exhibit basophilic granular material is shown. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?



    A. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    B. Myotonic Dystrophy
    C. Myasthenia Gravis
    D. Becker Muscular Dystrophy
    E. Inclusion Body myositis
    E. Inclusion Body myositis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. A healthy 28-year-old woman collapses near the end of a summer marathon. In the emergency room, the patient is noted to have hot dry skin with little sweating. Her temperature is 40.4°C. Laboratory findings reveal high levels of creatine kinase. The urine is dark red and contains myoglobin. Which of the following would be most expected in the muscle tissue of this patient?

    A. Microabscesses
    B. Rhadomyolysis
    C. Amyloid deposition
    D. Gangrene
    E. Lymphocytic infiltration
    B. Rhadomyolysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. A 22-year-old woman injured her leg in a motor vehicle accident and subsequently suffers from weakness of her left lower leg. A biopsy of the gastrocnemius muscle is obtained after four months (Shown in the image). Which of the following best characterizes this pathology?



    A. Autoimmune myopathy
    B. Target fibers
    C. Compensatory hypertrophy
    D. Mitochondrial depletion
    E. Denervation
    E. Denervation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. A 28-year-old man begins a program of vigorous body building. After six months, his biceps would be expected to exhibit which of the following adaptive cellular changes?

    A. hypertrophy of type I fibers
    B. hypertrophy of type II fibers
    C. hyperplasia of type I fibers
    D. hyperplasia of type II fibers
    E. hypoplasia of type I and II fibers with hyperplasia of myoblasts
    B. hypertrophy of type II fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. A 50-year-old woman presents with lower back pain of 3 weeks in duration. Radiologic studies reveal several discrete lytic lesions in the lumbar back and pelvis. Laboratory Studies show elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase. Serum calcium, serum protein, and peripheral blood smears are normal. Aspiration biopsy of a pelvic lesion shows keratin-positive cells. Which of the following is most likely diagnosis?

    A. Osteosarcoma
    B. Chondrosarcoma
    C. Metastatic carcinoma
    D. Osteochondroma
    E. Plasmacytoma
    C. Metastatic carcinoma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. A six-year-old child with mild hydrocephalus suffers chronic infections and dies of intractable chronic anemia. At autopsy, his bones are dense and misshapen. The femur, in particular, shows obliteration of the marrow space. Histologically, the bones demonstrate disorganization of bone trabeculae by retention of primary spongiosa and further obliteration of the marrow spaces by secondary spongiosa (shown in the image). Hematopoetic bone marrow cells are sparse. The disorder is caused by mutations in genes that regulate which of the following cell types?



    A. Normoblasts
    B. Osteoblasts
    C. Fibroblasts
    D. Osteoclasts
    E. Myofibroblasts
    D. Osteoclasts (osteopetrosis)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)


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