Causes of Crime
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Biological theory - adoption stat
Half of adopted boys who had criminal fathers went on to reoffend compared to a third of boys who did not
Biological theory - Lombroso
- criminals look physically different from normal
- largely discredited
- theory too descriptive
- terms not clear
Psychological theory - stat
- 7% of harrassment is committed by the mentally ill
- BUT incessant disagreements what constitutes
80% of chronic offenders have psycopathic personalities
Rational Choice theory example
O'Grady study on the illegal sale of tobacco to youths. Increased after 5pm when there was a less likely chance of police patrol
crime can be by opportunity
Rational Choice Theory - crimes of passion
- 2012 551 homicides including manslaughter
- BUT too small to play imperative role
Poverty strain theory example
- Glasgow has 10 of poorest words in Scotland
- Disproportionate amount of crime in all offences
- non-sexual violent crime Scottish average 19.9
- while in Glasgow it is 64
strain theory fails to explain white collar crime
costing UK economy £14bn a year
social exclusion stat
- half of young offenders in YOI have literacy rate of a 7 year old
- Elder employment "turning point"
family breakdown stat
70% of YO come from lone parent families
- "broken homes"
- furthermore, failure to provide nurture in first 3 years
- life long impact on mental health
labelling theory - poor people more likely to commit crime
- murder rate 6x higher in deprived areas
- "labelled" to commit
labelling theory BUT
does not explain why some do not reoffend?
being a victim of crime aged 12 is the strongest indicator of offending aged 15.
risk of being a victim in the 20% most deprived areas is twice as likely than 20% of lease deprived areas
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