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What is Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAI) Also know as NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION?
- This is when a patient obtains the infection druing their care at the hospital. (This includes infections appearing after discharge as well.)
- * Example of a HCAI is MRSA
What is ASEPSIS?
the absence of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.
What are most common types of HAIS?
- 1. Urinary site
- 2. Lower Respiratory tract
- 3. Surgical sites
What are the FIVE categories of microorganisms that cause infection in humans?
- 1. Bacteria
- 2. Viruses
- 3. Fungi
- 4. Protozoa
- 5. Helminths
What are the SIX links that make the chain of infection?
- 1. Infectious Agent
- 2. Reservoirs
- 3. Portal entry
- 4. Susceptible host
- 5. Mode of Transmission
- 6. Portal exit
what is an Infectious Agent?
An agent capable of producing an infection
What is a RESERVOIRS?
this is where the infection sit. example? hair or hands etc.
What is a PORTAL ENTRY?
any break or opening in the skin can be a portal entry. ex. eyes, respirarory tract, G.I. tract, blood stream etc.
what is a susveptible host?
any person who is at risk for infection
what is a comprimised host?
any person at INCREASED risk for infection. EXAMPLE - babies and elderly peopls
What are the SIX modes of transmission?
- 1. Direct contact (person to person)
- 2. Indirect contact (infected person touches door knob > person 2 touches door knob then eats or scratches eye without washing hands)
- 3. droplet transmission (sneezing, coughing etc.
- 4. airbourne (5 micron or less - Varicella)
- 5. vehicle bourne (toys, soiled clothes)
- 6. vector bourne (animal or insect bite)
What THREE way can a nurse break the chain?
- 1. Eliminating microorganism and their reservoirs
- 2. Reducing transmission via proper hand hygiene, PPE, & aseptic and sterile technique
- 3. Supporting host defences
How do we eliminate microorganism and the reservoirs?
- By decontanmination:
- 1. Cleaning
- 2. Disinfection
- 3. Sterilization (moist heat, gas, & boiling water)
What are the FIVE for Hand Hygiene?
- 1. Before patient contact
- 2. Before Aseptic technique
- 3. After body fluid exposure
- 4. After patient contact
- 5. After contact with patient surroundings
What is a ROUTINE PRACTICEs?
Infection prevention and control activities used on ALL clients regardless of thier diagnosis. (Ex. hand hygiene, wearing gloves, clean equipment)
What is additional precautions?
are infection prevention control process that are used in addition to the routine practices. for example - Airborne precautions - placing client in private room. DROPLET precaution - wearing a surgical mask if nurse is going to be 1-2metres away from client. CONTACT precautions - wearing a gown
Motion is essential for proper functioning of (___) and (___).?
Bones and muscle
Normal body movement has what FOUR basic elements?
- 1. Body alignment
- 2. Joint mobility
- 3. Balance (stability)
- 4. Coordinated movement
Body Alignment has 3 factors:
- * Promotes optimal body function
- * Maintains balance (line of gravity passes through centre of gravity)
- * Strain of joints, muscles and tendons is minimized
What is Range of Motion (ROM)?
maximum movement that is possible for a joint. This can be determined by genetics, development patterns, disease, and amt of physical activity
is the ability of the body to perform work
What is isotonic exercise?
when the muscles shorten to produce muscle contraction
What is isometric?
when a change in muscle tention occurs, but no change in muscle lenght
What are some effects due to immobility of the respiratory system?
- *Atelectasis - Where the lungs collaspe partially or completey
- *Hypostatic pneumonia - where the lungs are not moving as much as they should
- * Pooling of respiratory secretions
What are some effects due to immobilized GI system?
- * Constipation
- * Weak defecation reflex
- * Valsalva manoeuvre (Pushing like when you have to have a BM or delivering a baby.
Effects of IMmobility on the integumentary system?
- * reduced skin turgor
- * skin break down
- * impedes circulation
- * Pressure ulcers begin to form
What is the importance of skin?
it is the largest organ on the body and protects underlying tissue from injury
what is Hirsutism?
Excessive hair growth on body or face
what is ammonia dermatits?
caused by skin bacteria reacting with urea in urine causing readness and sores
Body odours are?
cause by skin bacteria acting on body secreation
What is a self help bed bath
Client can bath themselves with the nursing assiting in washing back
What is Dorsal pedis or posterior tibial pulses?
Check the heart beat in the foot in between the tarsal or by the ankle
Normal defication facilitated by:
- * Thigh flexion
- * Sitting up straight
- * contracting the abdominal muscles
are all factors that increase defection
Fecal elimination requires:
1500ml to 2000ml of fluid in take per day
What are FIVE fecal elimination problems:
- 1. constipation
- 2. fecal impaction
- 3. diarrhea
- 4. bowel incontinence
- 5. flatulence
Proximal convoluted tube
most water and electorlytes are reabsorbed
Loop of Henle
Glucose is reabsorbed here
Distal convoluted tuble
additional water and sodium are reabsorbed here under control of hormones
Formed urine then moves to the:
Calyces of the renal pelvis > Ureters > Bladder
Does alcohol increase urinary output by inhibiting the production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
TRUE OR FALSE
Does fluid and food high in sodium cause fluid retention?
what is Oliguria
low urine output
what is Anuria
no urinary production
what is nocturia
voiding at night
voiding that is painful