GBC_Semester_1_Clinical Lecture Weeks 1-6

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GBC_Semester_1_Clinical Lecture Weeks 1-6
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2014-02-19 15:50:14
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GBC Semester Clinical Lecture Weeks Elisa
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GBC_Semester_1_Clinical Lecture Weeks 1-4 Elisa_GBC_1
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  1. What is Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAI) Also know as NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION?
    • This is when a patient obtains the infection druing their care at the hospital.  (This includes infections appearing after discharge as well.)
    • * Example of a HCAI is MRSA
  2. What is ASEPSIS?
    the absence of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.
  3. What are most common types of HAIS?
    • 1.  Urinary site
    • 2.  Lower Respiratory tract
    • 3.  Surgical sites
  4. What are the FIVE categories of microorganisms that cause infection in humans?
    • 1.  Bacteria
    • 2.  Viruses
    • 3.  Fungi
    • 4.  Protozoa
    • 5.  Helminths
  5. What are the SIX links that make the chain of infection?
    • 1.  Infectious Agent
    • 2.  Reservoirs
    • 3.  Portal entry
    • 4.  Susceptible host
    • 5.  Mode of Transmission
    • 6.  Portal exit
  6. what is an Infectious Agent?
    An agent capable of producing an infection
  7. What is a RESERVOIRS?
    this is where the infection sit.  example? hair or hands etc.
  8. What is a PORTAL ENTRY?
    any break or opening in the skin can be a portal entry.  ex. eyes, respirarory tract, G.I. tract, blood stream etc.
  9. what is a susveptible host?
    any person who is at risk for infection
  10. what is a comprimised host?
    any person at INCREASED risk for infection. EXAMPLE - babies and elderly peopls
  11. What are the SIX modes of transmission?
    • 1.  Direct contact  (person to person)
    • 2.  Indirect contact (infected person touches door knob > person 2 touches door knob then eats or scratches eye without washing hands)
    • 3.  droplet transmission (sneezing, coughing etc.
    • 4.  airbourne (5 micron or less - Varicella)
    • 5.  vehicle bourne (toys, soiled clothes)
    • 6.  vector bourne (animal or insect bite)
  12. What THREE way can a nurse break the chain?
    • 1.  Eliminating microorganism and their reservoirs
    • 2.  Reducing transmission via proper hand hygiene, PPE, & aseptic and sterile technique
    • 3.  Supporting host defences
  13. How do we eliminate microorganism and the reservoirs?
    • By decontanmination:
    • 1.  Cleaning
    • 2.  Disinfection
    • 3.  Sterilization (moist heat, gas, & boiling water)
  14. What are the FIVE for Hand Hygiene?
    • 1.  Before patient contact
    • 2.  Before Aseptic technique
    • 3.  After body fluid exposure
    • 4.  After patient contact
    • 5.  After contact with patient surroundings
  15. What is a ROUTINE PRACTICEs?
    Infection prevention and control activities used on ALL clients regardless of thier diagnosis.  (Ex. hand hygiene, wearing gloves, clean equipment) 
  16. What is additional precautions?
    are infection prevention control process that are used in addition to the routine practices.  for example - Airborne precautions - placing client in private room.  DROPLET precaution - wearing a surgical mask if nurse is going to be 1-2metres away from client.  CONTACT precautions - wearing a gown
  17. Motion is essential for proper functioning of (___) and (___).?
    Bones and muscle
  18. Normal body movement has what FOUR basic elements?
    • 1.  Body alignment
    • 2.  Joint mobility
    • 3.  Balance (stability)
    • 4.  Coordinated movement
  19. Body Alignment has 3 factors:
    • *  Promotes optimal body function
    • *  Maintains balance (line of gravity passes through centre of gravity)
    • *  Strain of joints, muscles and tendons is minimized
  20. What is Range of Motion (ROM)?
    maximum movement that is possible for a joint.  This can be determined by genetics, development patterns, disease, and amt of physical activity
  21. Functional strength?
    is the ability of the body to perform work
  22. What is isotonic exercise?
    when the muscles shorten  to produce muscle contraction
  23. What is isometric?
    when a change in muscle tention occurs, but no change in muscle lenght
  24. What are some effects due to immobility of the respiratory system?
    • *Atelectasis - Where the lungs collaspe partially or completey
    • *Hypostatic pneumonia - where the lungs are not moving as much as they should
    • * Pooling of respiratory secretions
  25. What are some effects due to immobilized GI system?
    • * Constipation
    • * Weak defecation reflex
    • *  Valsalva manoeuvre (Pushing like when you have to have a BM or delivering a baby.
  26. Effects of IMmobility on the integumentary system?
    • * reduced skin turgor
    • * skin break down
    • * impedes circulation
    • * Pressure ulcers begin to form
  27. What is the importance of skin?
    it is the largest organ on the body and protects underlying tissue from injury
  28. what is Hirsutism?
    Excessive hair growth on body or face
  29. what is ammonia dermatits?
    caused by skin bacteria reacting with urea in urine causing readness and sores
  30. Body odours are?
    cause by skin bacteria acting on body secreation
  31. What is a self help bed bath
    Client can bath themselves with the nursing assiting in washing back
  32. What is Dorsal pedis or posterior tibial pulses?
    Check the heart beat in the foot in between the tarsal or by the ankle
  33. Normal defication facilitated by:
    • * Thigh flexion
    • * Sitting up straight
    • * contracting the abdominal muscles

     are all factors that increase defection
  34. Fecal elimination requires:
    1500ml to 2000ml of fluid in take per day
  35. What are FIVE fecal elimination problems:
    • 1.  constipation
    • 2.  fecal impaction
    • 3.  diarrhea
    • 4.  bowel incontinence
    • 5.  flatulence
  36. Proximal convoluted tube
    most water and electorlytes are reabsorbed
  37. Loop of Henle
    Glucose is reabsorbed here
  38. Distal convoluted tuble
    additional water and sodium are reabsorbed here under control of hormones
  39. Formed urine then moves to the:
    Calyces of the renal pelvis > Ureters > Bladder
  40. Does alcohol increase urinary output by inhibiting the production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)? 

    TRUE OR FALSE
    TRUE
  41. Does fluid and food high in sodium cause fluid retention?
    Yes
  42. what is Oliguria
    low urine output
  43. what is Anuria
    no urinary production
  44. what is nocturia
    voiding at night
  45. Dysuria is?
    voiding that is painful

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