Card Set Information
Chapter 3 notes from powerpoint
process of breaking down food into nutrients to prepare for absorption
the flexible, muscular tube from mouth to anus
gastrointestinal (GI) tract
the inner space of the GI tract
5 major organs?
not part of GI tract
liver, gall bladder, pancreas
digestion begins in the
the 5th taste found in soy sauce, mushrooms
in the mouth, closes to prevent food from entering the pharynx and into lungs, prevents choking
food ball that we swallow
after chewing, food goes through ____ and then ___ ___
what happens in the mouth?
stimulation of taste buds
12 inch tube that transports food to stomach
circular band of muscle fibers in specific areas of GI tract that act as valves to control flow of material
upper end of esophagus?
between esophagus and stomach
what do sphincters do?
relaxes from pressure of food bolus
barrier to reflux of acidic stomach contents
very acidic substance in the stomach
backward flow of chime from the stomach to the esophagus, often times caused by a leaky esophageal sphincter
____ has strongest muscles of all GI tract
adds juices and grinds bolus to a semiliquid mass called chyme
seperates stomach from small intestine
mucus membranes located throughout the GI tract are thickest in?
1st part of small intestine?
most digestion occurs where?
in the duodenum
last 2 parts of small intestine where most absorption occurs
most absorptions occur in the ?
3 sections of small intestine?
digestive juices come from?
seperates the small intestine from the large intestine
begins at ileocecal valve, ends at rectom and anus
digestion in the large intestine?
nutrient digestion is already complete
some digestion of fiber by bacteria
absorption in the large intestine?
sodium, potassium, chloride
the muscular final segment of the large intestine, waste remains here until it is time to defecate
a sphincter controls movement in the ?
a voluntary sphincter opens to allow the passage of waste
at large intestine opening, a blind sac about as big as your finger
muscular contractions of digestion
___ pushes digestive contents down, one way
circular and longitudinal muscles
contractions by circular muscles that contract and squeeze contents in small intestine
back and forth movement
open and close passageways
upper and lower esophageal
the breakdown of food into nutrients requires?
secretions from 5 different organs
the breakdown of food into nutrients requires secretions from 5 different organs?
____ facilitate the making and breaking of bonds in chemical reactions
words ending is -ase =?
carbohydrate digestions begins in the ____ with ____ ____
what does saliva do?
supplies enzymes that begin carbohydrate digestion
no carb digestion happens in the ?
_____ _____ haults in the stomach because salivary amylase cant do its job in an acidic environment
gastric juice from gastric glands
_____ stores bile and is responsible for secreting the bile to the small intestine
breaking large fat globules into smaller fat droplets so they can more easily combine with other mediums
synthesizes bile which acts as an emulsifier to suspend fat
stores concentrates and secreates bile into small intestine
pancreatic juice contains bicarbonate, enzymes secreated into duodenum
_____ is secreated by the pancreas to the duodenum in order to neutralize acidic chyme
____ ____ nutrients are disassembled for absorption
what can be absorbed in the final stages of digestion?
vitamins, minerals, water
what 3 things are located in the small intestine folds?
fingerlike projections within the fold of the small intestine
microscopic hairlike projections on each villi
tubular glands that lie between the intestinal villi and secrete enzymes for digestion
vascular system consists of ?
the portal vein directs blood from the ___ to the ___
____ ____ _____ and small fats enter vascular system (bloodstream) directly and travel to the ___
a clear yellowish fluid without RBC or platelets
unlike the vascular system, the lymphatic system has ?
lymph freely circulates between ?
the cells of the body and collects into tiny vessels
fat soluble nutrients and large fats enter the lymph system first, then empty into the?
bloodstream, bypassing the liver
regulation of digestion and absorption, 3 hormones?
released from the stomach wall in response to presence of food
regulates the pH of the stomach
stimulates the stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid
stomach maintains pH 1.5-1.7
released from the duodenum wall in response to presence of acidic chyme
travels to pancreas via bloodsteam, stimulating pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralized chyme
released from small intestine wall in response to presence of fat
stimulates the gall bladder to contract, releasing bile into the small intestine
hard, dry infrequent stools
how to fix constipation?
loose, watery, frequent stools
diarrhea can cause?
pouches along colon
a high fiber diet reduces formation of ?
nutrients cross intestinal cells freely to be absorbed
some nutrients need a carrier to transport them from one side of the cell membrane to the other in order for them to be absorbed
some nutrients needs to be transported actively against a concentration gradient which requires energy in order to be absorbed
water soluble nutrients enter the bloodstream ___ and travel to the ____ via the ____ ___
___ ____ and ___ ___ nutrients are insoluble in water, are assembled into ____ and are released into the lymphatic system
larger fats clustered together with special proteins
____ are released into the lymphatic system and will move through the lymph until they can enter a point near the heart
the liver is ____ the first destination for ___ ___ ___
fat soluble nutrients
the liver is the first stop for ?
water soluble nutrients