ch3 NTD303

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melissag94
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ch3 NTD303
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2014-02-19 20:03:27
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chapter NTD303
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Chapter 3 notes from powerpoint
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  1. process of breaking down food into nutrients to prepare for absorption
    digestion
  2. the flexible, muscular tube from mouth to anus
    gastrointestinal (GI) tract
  3. the inner space of the GI tract
    lumen
  4. 5 major organs?
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intesting
  5. assisting organs?
    • not part of GI tract
    • liver, gall bladder, pancreas
  6. digestion begins in the
    mouth
  7. the 5th taste found in soy sauce, mushrooms
    umami
  8. in the mouth, closes to prevent food from entering the pharynx and into lungs, prevents choking
    epiglottis
  9. food ball that we swallow
    bolus
  10. after chewing, food goes through ____ and then ___ ___
    • esophagus
    • digestive route
  11. what happens in the mouth?
    • chewing
    • saliva
    • stimulation of taste buds
    • swallowing
  12. digestive route?
    pharynx
  13. mastification?
    chewing
  14. 12 inch tube that transports food to stomach
    esophagus
  15. circular band of muscle fibers in specific areas of GI tract that act as valves to control flow of material
    sphincters
  16. upper end of esophagus?
    upper esophageal
  17. between esophagus and stomach
    lower esophageal
  18. what do sphincters do?
    • relaxes from pressure of food bolus
    • barrier to reflux of acidic stomach contents
  19. very acidic substance in the stomach
    chyme
  20. backward flow of chime from the stomach to the esophagus, often times caused by a leaky esophageal sphincter
    reflux
  21. ____ has strongest muscles of all GI tract
    stomach
  22. adds juices and grinds bolus to a semiliquid mass called chyme
    stomach
  23. seperates stomach from small intestine
    pyloric sphincter
  24. mucus membranes located throughout the GI tract are thickest in?
    the stomach
  25. 1st part of small intestine?
    duodenum
  26. most digestion occurs where?
    in the duodenum
  27. last 2 parts of small intestine where most absorption occurs
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  28. most absorptions occur in the ?
    small intestine
  29. 3 sections of small intestine?
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  30. digestive juices come from?
    • gall bladder
    • pancreas
  31. seperates the small intestine from the large intestine
    ileocecal valve
  32. begins at ileocecal valve, ends at rectom and anus
    large intestine
  33. digestion in the large intestine?
    • nutrient digestion is already complete
    • some digestion of fiber by bacteria
  34. absorption in the large intestine?
    • water
    • sodium, potassium, chloride
    • vitamin K
  35. the muscular final segment of the large intestine, waste remains here until it is time to defecate
    rectum
  36. a sphincter controls movement in the ?
    rectum
  37. a voluntary sphincter opens to allow the passage of waste
    anus
  38. at large intestine opening, a blind sac about as big as your finger
    appendix
  39. muscular contractions of digestion
    peristalsis
  40. ___ pushes digestive contents down, one way
    peristalsis
  41. circular and longitudinal muscles
    stomach action
  42. contractions by circular muscles that contract and squeeze contents in small intestine
    segmentation
  43. back and forth movement
    segmentation
  44. open and close passageways
    sphincter contractions
  45. 5 sphincters?
    • upper and lower esophageal
    • pyloric
    • ileocecal
    • rectum/anus
  46. the breakdown of food into nutrients requires?
    secretions fromĀ 5 different organs
  47. the breakdown of food into nutrients requires secretions from 5 different organs?
    • salivary glands
    • stomach
    • pancreas
    • liver
    • small intestines
  48. ____ facilitate the making and breaking of bonds in chemical reactions
    enzymes
  49. words ending is -ase =?
    enzymes
  50. carbohydrate digestions begins in the ____ with ____ ____
    • mouth
    • salivary amylase
  51. what does saliva do?
    • moistens food
    • supplies enzymes that begin carbohydrate digestion
  52. no carb digestion happens in the ?
    stomach
  53. _____ _____ haults in the stomach because salivary amylase cant do its job in an acidic environment
    carbohydrate digestion
  54. gastric juice from gastric glands
    stomach
  55. liver makes?
    bile
  56. _____ stores bile and is responsible for secreting the bile to the small intestine
    gallbladder
  57. breaking large fat globules into smaller fat droplets so they can more easily combine with other mediums
    emulsification
  58. synthesizes bile which acts as an emulsifier to suspend fat
    liver
  59. stores concentrates and secreates bile into small intestine
    gallbladder
  60. pancreatic juice contains bicarbonate, enzymes secreated into duodenum
    pancreas
  61. _____ is secreated by the pancreas to the duodenum in order to neutralize acidic chyme
    bicarbonate
  62. ____ ____ nutrients are disassembled for absorption
    energy yielding
  63. what can be absorbed in the final stages of digestion?
    vitamins, minerals, water
  64. what 3 things are located in the small intestine folds?
    • villi
    • microvilli
    • crypts
  65. fingerlike projections within the fold of the small intestine
    villi
  66. microscopic hairlike projections on each villi
    microvilli
  67. tubular glands that lie between the intestinal villi and secrete enzymes for digestion
    crypts
  68. absorptive mechanisms?
    • passive diffusion
    • active transport
    • facilitated diffusion
  69. vascular system consists of ?
    • arteries
    • capillaries
    • veins
  70. the portal vein directs blood from the ___ to the ___
    • GI tract
    • liver
  71. ____ ____ _____ and small fats enter vascular system (bloodstream) directly and travel to the ___
    • water-soluble nutrients
    • liver
  72. a clear yellowish fluid without RBC or platelets
    lymph
  73. unlike the vascular system, the lymphatic system has ?
    no pump
  74. lymph freely circulates between ?
    the cells of the body and collects into tiny vessels
  75. fat soluble nutrients and large fats enter the lymph system first, then empty into the?
    bloodstream, bypassing the liver
  76. regulation of digestion and absorption, 3 hormones?
    • gastrin
    • secretin
    • cholecystokinin (CCK)
  77. released from the stomach wall in response to presence of food
    gastrin
  78. regulates the pH of the stomach
    gastrin
  79. stimulates the stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid
    gastrin
  80. stomach maintains pH 1.5-1.7
    gastrin
  81. released from the duodenum wall in response to presence of acidic chyme
    secretin
  82. travels to pancreas via bloodsteam, stimulating pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralized chyme
    secretin
  83. released from small intestine wall in response to presence of fat
    cholecystokinin (CCK)
  84. stimulates the gall bladder to contract, releasing bile into the small intestine
    CCK
  85. hard, dry infrequent stools
    constipation
  86. how to fix constipation?
    • fiber
    • water
    • exercise
  87. loose, watery, frequent stools
    diarrhea
  88. diarrhea can cause?
    dehydration
  89. pouches along colon
    diverticulosis
  90. a high fiber diet reduces formation of ?
    diverticulosis
  91. nutrients cross intestinal cells freely to be absorbed
    simple diffusion
  92. some nutrients need a carrier to transport them from one side of the cell membrane to the other in order for them to be absorbed
    facilitated diffusion
  93. some nutrients needs to be transported actively against a concentration gradient which requires energy in order to be absorbed
    active transport
  94. water soluble nutrients enter the bloodstream ___ and travel to the ____ via the ____ ___
    • directly
    • liver
    • portal vein
  95. ___ ____ and ___ ___ nutrients are insoluble in water, are assembled into ____ and are released into the lymphatic system
    • larger fats
    • fat soluble
    • chylomicrons
  96. larger fats clustered together with special proteins
    chylomicrons
  97. ____ are released into the lymphatic system and will move through the lymph until they can enter a point near the heart
    chylomicrons
  98. the liver is ____ the first destination for ___ ___ ___
    • NOT
    • fat soluble nutrients
  99. the liver is the first stop for ?
    water soluble nutrients

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