Dionysos specific dates in 5th C DONE

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Dionysos specific dates in 5th C DONE
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    • 440-430BC
    • Polygnotus from Spina (N Italy) and now in Ferrara
    • Volute krater RF
    • Found in a tomb, probably of a follower of the cult of Dionysos
    • Thought to be Dionysos and Meter (μητηρ) who is usually Rhea or Cybele but given likely Dionysos Cybele seems more likely. (Mother of Sabazius/Dionysos in Phrygia) Supposedly purified D and taught him rites.
    • LINK with BACCHAE: Euripides mentions Lydia/Phyrgia. Rhea is his co-creator of the drum, mentions rites of Kybele (also here pipes and satyrs)
    • Likely Dionysos as snakes in hair (this is referenced in Bacchae) and both figures holding out a phiale (to receive wine?). Long curls, beard. 
    • Orgiastic worship on the back: aulos, tumpanos, clothed and having the accoutrements of the rites so maenads, not nymphs. Snakes in hair and hands, headbands, movement very well rendered and rapturous/entranced expressions
    • 420BC
    • RF Stamnos
    • Dinos painter
    • Rustic worship of Dionysos


    Mask god

    Masking ritual was Dionysiac at Athens

    • NB Pisistratos promoting the central
    • festival over small rural ones
    • c. 430BC
    • RF pelike - wine jug
    • Kleophon painter
    • Return of Hephaistos to Olympos
    • obv cf the above and francois

    Return of Hephaistos

    • Suggests the opening scene of Frogs is actually recalling this tale: Dionysos
    • leading Xanthias on a donkey!

    • This myth shows the power of Dionysos. 
    • He is here with some of his attributes: thyrsos, ivy wreath, holding his favourite kantharos, possibly an animal skin also. 

    • Heph holds his blacksmith's tools and wears the short tradesman's chitoniskos. He is supported by a satyr and another goes ahead (scrubby beard, short stubby features, animal skin) and a woman goes ahead (she is dressed - can't see attributes so might be a nymph rather than a maenad). 
    • So there's wine, women, sex, power, komos?
    • c440
    • Volute krater
    • Kleophon painter
    • Return of Hephaistos to Olympos
    • Spina

    Return of Hephaistos

    • Suggests the opening scene of Frogs is actually recalling this tale: Dionysos
    • leading Xanthias on a donkey!

    Obviously cf the above and Francois

    • Very similar composition
    • Dionysos has long curls (Bacchae)
    • Thyrsus
    • Kantharos
    • Accompanied by aulos-playing satyr
    • Heph on a donkey this time but still with blacksmith's tools and short tradesman's tunic
    • Other image:
    • Two women
    • One has tumpanos, the other nothing. Both clothed. Uncertain - probably not maenads. 
    • Who is with them? Thyrsus, naked, animal skin, could be a satyr? He looks like he might have a tail and the same scrubby beard as the one without a damaged face.
    • 440BC
    • White ground calyx krater - whiter 'second white' added to female flesh
    • Phiale painter
    • Hermes brings baby Dionysos to Papposilenus
    • Nysa Nymphs attending

    • Childhood myth
    • This is explicitly told in Bakkhai. 
    • Hermes has his clear attributes. Papposilenus identified by white hair and beard, animal skins, nakedness - is there thyrsoi as well?
    • Women - nymphs of Nysa who raised him?
    • At least one branch of ivy. 
    • Some scholars have identified this as from a Sophoklean satyr-play
    • Left-hand side only
    • 460-50BC
    • Bronze statuette of Dionysos
    • Sheds beard approx 430BC

    • Short khitoniskos and boots, plus vine wreath
    • The boots may be a nod to his Eastern origins

    • Right: he is effeminate, has long curls and a small panther (cf aulos player's votive relief)
    • Marble. Arm has to be supported. Roman copy from a bronze. 

    • All reps of a young, beardless Dionysos. 
    • Why? Because a lot of stories are about his power being challenged before he is an established god? 
    • Beautiful.
    • Compare to Bakkhai and what Pentheus says when they meet.
    • c450-25
    • Lekanis lid
    • Pentheus torn apart by Agave and Ino and maenads
    • Remained a popular story. There is a depiction in the House of the Vettii. Declared class of the owner to display the Greek myths. Culture. Expense.
    • 480BC
    • Death of Pentheus
    • Attic RF kylix
    • Douris painter (attrib.)
    • Python potter
    • Drunk satyr?
    • Animal skins
    • Predates the tragedies on this subject
    • after 480BC
    • Skyphos
    • Bakkhai  274-85 
    • Makron painter
    • Hieron potter
    • Side A: Departure of Triptolemos 
    • Side B: Zeus, Dionysos
    • and Amphitrite.

    • Skyphoi were for:
    • Triptolemos was sent on a mission with gifts from Demeter to sow the earth and spread the cultivation of grain. So it's an explanatory myth.
    • He's holding his symbols: the wheat, he's in the one-wheeled chariot

    • Amphitrite is Poseidon's wife
    • Dionysos has his ivy
    • 500-490BC
    • RF Amphora
    • Berlin painter
    • A: Hermes and Silenus
    • B: Satyr
    • Hermes (named) with jug and large kantharos
    • Satyr (named Oreimachos) with lyre and plectrum, and fawn
    • Overlapping and radiating their limbs in a sophisticated design that fills the great black space (there are no panels, only minimal pattern bands).
    • B. A single satyr (named Orochares), leaning forward towards the kantharos held it the right hand. The left holds a barbiton; the tail is arched. 
    • Wine and music. No Dionysos? 
    • Grapes are shown. 
    • Hermes is sometimes given as the father of Silenus. 
    • He is not old here - showing the youth of Silenos before Dionysos? 

    Amphora for drinking wine so apt symposium subject; think about Dionysos' line and origins perhaps
    • 500-490BC
    • Amphora
    • Kleophrades painter

    Full regalia

    Rapturous expressions

    Long before Euripides

    • 550 onwards, they start appearing quite a
    • lot

    • But we don’t have enough evidence of the
    • actual cultic rituals

    Wine-drinking was a male pastime

    • Athenian women had no access to hunting or
    • the drinking parties
    • 500-480BC
    • Frolicking Satyrs
    • Douris painter
    • RF Psykter
    • Wine-cooler
    • It floated in a krater, used for symposia, of course!
    • Satyrs with standard appearance
    • One drinking upside down - men tried this skill! Such pictures are considered to be a warning about drinking too much.
    • Character of satyrs as quite base? Humans reduced? Dionysos is for the sober use of wine - diluting it was a sign of refinement.
    • Pronomos Vase
    • 400BC
    • Pronomos painter
    • Ruvo (Apulia) 
    • Chorus of 10 satyrs. Writer, piper, lyre-player. 3 actors (king, Herakles, Pappasilenos). Dionysos, Ariadne, Himeros. Victory tripods.

    • Content
    • Commissioned to commemorate an actual performance?
    • Found in an area where many theatre-influenced vases were found. Indicative of strong interest in this region? 
    • Or secondhand, topical appeal faded?

    Red figure technique. Added colours. This is common of S Italian vases but this one is made in ATHENS. Sold to Italian wanting to show off knowledge? 

    Purpose was wine-mixing. Francois vase earliest known example of this. 

    Athenians only used these at feasts or sanctuaries. 

    Dionysian celebration both inside and outside theatre. 

    Viewers cannot look at every figure at once. Like a play you can't assess the entire thing until you've seen it all.

    Tragedy and Satyr play together?

    • Could be a victory party? Explains not wearing masks. 2 tripods could indicate a win. 
    • Or a pre-play preparation?

    • Why is the god present?
    • Ideal chorus?
    • Such a good performance that D himself is there? 

    Mask on wall. Connection with Dionysiac ritual? Rustic worship?

    • DIONYSIAC 
    • the god is present twice
    • tripods under each handle

    One actor very richly costumed. 

    Problematic figure - woman? No female actresses, of course. She wears a stage costume, holding mask with a miter? A woman played by a man and painter carried away by actor's skill? But then there are too many actors. 

    • Chorus leader on lower half.
    • Piper wears costume
    • Lyre player doesn't
    • Pronomos, the piper, is prominent

    • Dionysos and Ariadne central.
    • Tripods and columns show it is his sanctuary

    And we see a chorus-member in mask, dancing

    Satyr chorus sit around holding theirmasks, wearing the trunks with phallus and tail

    The Herakles is almost becoming his character - he has the massive neck, cropped beard and curly hair of Herakles in Athenian vase-painting. Shows his skill as an actor? Or vase-painter just making it clear who he is playing? He conquers death. In Frogs he is the facilitator of D's journey down into Hades.

    Papposilenus is sombre here: wise Silenos of myth?

    • Other side:
    • Dionysos and his consort Ariadne
    • accompanied by leopard, satyrs
    • Torches (places them in the wild)
    • Thyrsus with ivy and a pine cone.

    • origins?
    • Possibly drama grew out of song. Narrative and role-playing were present within all sorts of songs
    • Aristotle: chorus leader evolved into actor? 
    • Tragedy: dithyramb – and it survived in its own right as very high lyric 
    • Comedy: old fertility rituals, Satyr-play

    • Pronomos Vase: cast of a satyr-play in sanctuary of Dionysos
    • Primitive – men dressed as satyrs, led byPapposilenus in the furry white onesie…  

    Then divine or heroic actor roles came. A number of themes: chorus would do somegroup activity, sports or fighting or something, then upset the normal order, then it gets restored by the end. Meant to be funny – release after three tragedies? Not a fast rule though. 

    • Artificiality of comedy is depicted.
    • Tragedy is not. Dramatic illusion! The myths being re-enacted are of the society’s heroic past. 

    • Satyrs ca520-510 grow increasingly humanand begin to adopt the above pastimes
    • Culture vs Nature?
    • Left: 480BC Column krater
    • Attic red-figure
    • Chorus in a rectilinear formation
    • Hence orchestra like Thorikos
    • Masks carefully rendered - jutting jaws, careful unbroken chin lines
    • Formation - suggests moving in sync and probably dancing
    • Letters coming from mouths
    • Wearing diadems, not helmets, which suggests performance

    • Right: 470BC Calyx krater (murder of Agamemnon)
    • Agamemnon etc are failed leaders, abuse
    • power

    Symposion Krater (see other powerpoint)

    Painted before the play written

    Cf. the tyrannicides?

    • CONTEXT – it’s for a symposium. People
    • would be thinking about the issues and debating them.

    • Hubris of Ag, Hubris of Kly, Hubris of Aig, then a just defender comes in Libation Bearers to liberate the people.
    • Emotional reactions on both sides of the action

    • No breaking of 4th wall in tragedy - dramatic illusion preserved and effective
    • Bold gestures recall performance, however?
    • Contemplation of what the dramas or the issues they raised signified?
  1. NB KRAters:

    In Athens most were for symposia

    In Apulia they were less practical. Some
    were massive! Also they were left permeable in some places and therefore
    unsuitable for liquid
  2. Drama Origins stuff:

    486BC comedy officially recognized as an
    event at the CD

    We aren’t sure how far before that it was
    going on and we have representations of ‘comic’ choruses back in mid-6thC.

     

    Possibly drama grew out of song. Narrative
    and role-playing were present within all sorts of songs

    Aristotle: chorus leader evolved into
    actor?

    Tragedy: dithyramb – and it survived in its
    own right as very high lyric

    Comedy: old fertility rituals


    Komoi

    Dramas were called komoi on the Fasti

    Komos = drunken procession

    Can apply to comedy and tragedy  - procession of the chorus in honour of wine

     

    Komasts

    We see dancers on vases from about 630

    Our earliest dramas – 480

    There are various types

    Padded dancers

    Satyrs or silens of various types

    Women in long dresses peploi or short tunics chitoniskoi

     

    Komasts were not overtly related to
    Dionysos

    Padded komasts began to be humanized into
    ordinary people by the 560s

    Meanwhile satyrs’ popularity increased

    So padded komasts – realistic komasts or
    mythical satyrs  - dramatic satyrs

    But they do overlap. One didn’t reaplce the
    other.

    Representing similar ideas, though?

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