Bio Chapter 6

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Bio Chapter 6
2014-03-03 15:07:17
Bio 181

Chapter 6
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  1. All organisms are made of what?
  2. Cell structure is correlated to what?
    cellular FUNCTION
  3. Year microscopes were invented? and refined?
    Invented in 1590 and refined in 1600's
  4. Who was ROBERT HOOKE? and what year did he do that?
    • -First one to see cell walls (bark of an oak tree)
    • - 1665
  5. Who was  Antoni Van LEEUWENHOEK? His occupation? and what year did he do that?
    - He crafted a lens to visualize living cells.

    -He looked at pond water and fresh lake water, he then saw living creatures, aka "Animalcules" 

  6. What was Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek known as?
    aka The Father of the Microscopes
  7. What is cell theory and who proposed it?
    • Cell Theory
    • 1. All living organisms are made of cells
    • 2. All cells arise from pre-existing cells by cell division

    Proposed by Schleider and Schwann
  8. What two types of cells are there?
    Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic
  9. What domain(s) fall under a prokaryotic cell?
    Bacteria and Archaea
  10. What domain(s) fall under the Eukaryotic cell?
  11. What kingdoms fall under the Eukarya Domain?

    and describe each and give example
    -Protists- Unicellular EX: protozoa like paramecium

    -Fungi- Heterotroph Ex mushroom

    -Animalia- animals

    -Plantae- plants
  12. All cells have what?

    and describe each!
    • Chromosomes that carry DNA- Genetic Material
    • Cell/Plasma Membrane- phospholipid bilayer  and proteins
    • Ribosomes-make proteins from instructions from genes.
    • Cytosol -semifluid, jelly-like substance where organelles are
  13. Where is DNA located in a Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cell?
    Eukaryotic- Located in the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane

    Prokaryotic- Located in concentrated region, not membrane enclosed called nucleoid

  14. How large are most animal and plant cells?
    They are about 10μm-100μm in diameter

  15. Out of the two types of cells out there, which one is larger?
    Eukaryotic cell size > Prokaryotic cell size
  16. What are smallest cells known?  and what are they also called?
    smallest cells are bacteria called, mycoplasmas (diameter of 0.1 and 1.0μm)
  17. Typical Bacteria are how many times bigger than mycoplasmas?
    10 times bigger
  18. What is it, and what is the function of the Plasma/cell Membrane?
    It is the membrane that encloses the cell, phospholipid bilayer

    • It functions as a selective barrier that allows Oxygen, nutrients and wastes to service the entire cell.
  19. What are Phili or Fimbriae?
    • The are attachment structures (help attach) that are located on some prokaryotes
  20. What and where is the CELL WALL located?
    • The cell wall is a rigid structure outside the plasma membrane. Made out of Cellulose, other polysaccarides and Proteins. 
    • (peptidoglycan- disaccarides crosslinked)
    • YELLOW PART!!!!!

    • Plasma Membrane
    • Cell Wall
    • Capsule/Slime Layer
  21. What and where is the Slime Layer?
    • RED PART!
    • -Prevents dryness, sticky layer in Prokaryotes
  22. What and where are ribosomes?
    • Circle-dot things! 

    -Make proteins, free in cytosol or bound to Rough ER or Nuclear Envelope
  23. How many pounds of bacteria cells make up our body?
  24. Name the 3 types and shapes of bacteria cells!
    Bacillus- Rod Shape

    Coccus- Sphere Shape

    • Spirillum- Spiral Shape
  25. When using a microscope the quality of an image depends on what?
    • -resolution
    • -Magnification 
    • -constrast
  26. What 4 types of microscopes are?
    - Light Microscopes (LM)

    - Electron Microscope (EM)

    -Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    -Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
  27. What is Magnification?
    The ratio of an object's image size to its real size!
  28. What is Resolution?
    Measure of Clarity of the image
  29. Why do we stain cells (when put under microscopes)?
    To get a better contrast! (visible differences in points of the sample)
  30. What is the Resolving Power? It's abbreviation? and Formula?
    RP- The smallest size entity you can see clearly

    λ÷ (2×NA)

    • λ= lambda, wavelength, average of visible light, 550 nm
    • Na = Numerical Aperature (#on objective lens)
  31. In Resolving Power (RP) what is NA?
    • Numerical Aperature!
    • The number written on the objective lens
  32. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

    What is it use for?
    How does it work?
    One disadvantage?
    200,000Xs magnification

    Used for studying internal structures of cells

    TEM aims electron beam through thin slice of specimen  (use diamond knife) prepared by Microtomy.

    Kills the cells!!!

    SECOND image using TEM ( pointing to longitudinal and cross-section of cillium)

  33. What is cytology?
    the study of cell structure
  34. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    What is it used for?
    How does it work?
    How does the specimen's surface appear?
    50,000Xs magnification

    Used to study surface structure of a specimen

    Electron beams scans surface

    Makes it look 3-D

  35. Using LM, what is the most popular way of viewing cells?
    By using Florescent Dye! Florescent substances absorb UV light and emit visible light! (get excited by UV light)

  36. Light Microscope (LM)

    How does it work?
    What can't you see using LM?
    1000X magnification

    Light passes through specimen and through glass lenses then magnifies image


  37. LM
    What is Brightfield (Stained) and Brightfield (Unstained)?

    • FIRST image- specimen is not stained having little contrast
    • SECOND image- specimen is stained which enhances constrast
  38. LM

    What is Phase-contrast and Differential-Interference-constrast?
    Phase-contrast- amplify specimen density, useful when examining living, unpigmented cells

    • Differential Interference Contrast- Same as phase contrast but image is appeared to look 3-D
  39. LM

    What is confocal?
    • FIRST image- image of florescent of nervous tissue
    • SECOND image- confocal image that uses a laser to do "optical sectioning" technique that eliminates out of focus
  40. What technique is used to study cell STRUCTURE and FUNCTION?
    • Cell Fractionation 
  41. What is Cell Fractionation?
    Process which takes cells apart and separates major organelles (and other subcellular structures) from one another!
  42. What instrument is used to carry out cell fractionation?
    • Centrifuge (Centrifugation)
  43. What is Homogenization (in cell fractionation)?
    • where cells break open (in buffer) without damaging organelles (in blender)
  44. In cell fractionation what will the filter paper do?
    using filter paper, organelles will go in the buffer residue will remain in filter paper or paper towel
  45. What is the pellet and Supernatant in the cell fractionation process?
    Pellet- what holds the cells components, each pellet varies depending on differential centrifugation (speed and time)

    Supernatant- It is the liquid/buffer where the pellet is

  46. How is the chromosome in the Eukaryotic cell?
    Multiple Linear Chromosomes coiled around basic proteins called histones

  47. How is the chromosome in Prokaryotic cell?
    single circular chromosome supercoiled around histone like protein but NOT histone
  48. Eukaryotic cells have ______ and ________
    Have INTRONS and EXONS
  49. prokaryotic cells have ______ but NOT______
    have EXONS but not INTRONS
  50. What are Exons?
    Genes which code for proteins
  51. Cell membrane 

    The Head and the Tail are what?
    Head - Polar Hydrophilic 

    Tail- Nonpolar Hydrophobic
  52. What is a cell wall? and what kind of cell has a cell wall?
    • -An outer layer that maintains shape and protects
    • -made of cellulose, other polysaccharides and protein.
    • -in Plant cells
  53. What are plastids? what cell carries them?
    • Plastids come in different forms, having different functions
    • -Chloroplasts: photosynthesis
    • -Chromoplasts: Give color pigments (circular shape)
    • -Leucoplast: stores starch(circular shape)
  54. What is the nuclear envelope's location and function?
    • -Outer layer that encloses the nucleus from cytoplasm
    • -located in the Eukaryotic cell (around nucleus duh!)
  55. What are lysosomes, and where are they located?
    • -"digestive" organelle 
    • -Contains hydrolytic enzymes  which break nutrients to be used as energy. 
    • -Body's defense (destroy bacteria and other unwelcomed things that come into the cell as well as damaged organelles) 
    • -found in animal cells
  56. What is mitochondria/function? Where is it found(cell)?
    • -where cellular respiration occurs, and ATP (transports chemical energy through cell for metabolism)
    • -Found in Eukaryotic cells (animal and plant)
  57. What is Plasmodesmata? And what cell is it found in?
    • -"Channels" through cell walls that connect cells together 
    • -Found in Plant cells
  58. What is a flagellum? Where is it located?
    • -a structure present in animal cells, sperm cells and bacteria cells
    • -used for movement
    • -made of microtubules
  59. What is cytoplasm?
    The liquidy substance found in the cell where all the organelles are located. In all cells
  60. What is the nucleolus, and it's function?
    • -found in the nucleus
    • -makes ribosomes
  61. What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)?
    • -attached to nucleus by membranes
    • -Smooth ER: releases lipids (like hormones), used in cell and neighboring cell
    • -Rough ER: studded with ribosomes, used to make proteins
  62. Ribosomes?
    • - make proteins from amino acids
    • -found on Rough ER or free in the cytoplasm
  63. What are the Nuclear Pores and where are they located?
    • -They allow  molecules to go in and out of nucleus
    • -located on the nuclear envelope
  64. Besides the nucleus, where can other genes be locatated?
    mitochondria and chloroplasts
  65. What are Chromatids? Location?
    Long sequences of genetic info. in the form of DNA. Found in the nucleus