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What is fungi's role in decomposition?
- more important in breaking down wood (lignin)
- cycle nutrients and CO2
List the five phyla of fungi.
What is a chemo-heterotroph?
an organism that obtains energy from the oxidation of organic compounds.
How does fungi decompose organic matter?
secretes exoenzymes for external digestion and absorbs simple organic molecules
What does fungi digest from plants and animals?
- plants: cellulose and lignin
- animals: chitin and keratin
What are the cell walls of fungi made of?
What are the bodies of fungi mostly composed of?
What are hyphae?
- delicate tubes surrounding cytoplasm
- interwoven=mycelium (acts as feeding network)
What is mycelium?
a bunch of interwoven hyphae that act as a feeding network.
What are the two main types of hyphae?
- septate- cross walls that divide cells into separate chambers.
- coenocytic-no cross walls, continuous cytoplasm with lots of nuclei
How are spores produced?
- sexual and asexual (depending on species)
- meiosis and mitosis
Spores in fungi vs. plants
spores act as dispersal stage
- usually freshwater, moist soil, and guts of animals.
- digest dead matter
- can be parasitic
- live in soil and organic remains
- not usually parasitic
- (bread mold)
- symbiotic relationship with root plants
- supply minerals and nutrients to roots
- classic mushrooms (sexual structure)
- sexual and asexual
- important decomposers
- parasitic to plants
- lined with "gills" under cap lined with basidia (spore production)
- produce fuzzy hyphae
- can by zygo, asco or basidio
- liquid or moist environments
- pinches off from parent cell
- mutualisim between roots and fungi
- -not just fungi
- helps plant absorb minerals, fungus gets carbohydrates
- glomero, zygo, asco and basidio
- mixture of hyphae and a photosynthetic partner
- 90% asco, rest basidio
What causes "fairy rings"?
the outward growth of hyphae, mushroom grows out of and leaves ring once dead.
What role do lichens play?
breakdown solid rock by producing carbonic acid creating soil and allowing new plant life.
What are endolithic lichens?
grow under surface of rock except for the fruiting body
What is the difference between ecto and endo mycorrhizae?
- ecto-hyphae penetrates roots but not cells, occurs in birch, conifer and willow
- endo- hyphae penetrate cells