Chapter 6 Chemistry

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anmott
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262890
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Chapter 6 Chemistry
Updated:
2014-03-03 19:11:03
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CHEM
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Chapter 6 Chemistry Review
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  1. Chemical Bond
    An electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence eof different atoms.
  2. Ionic Bond
    When electrons are transfered between elements. Formed by a metal (which loses eand becomes a cation) and a nonmetal (which gains eand becomes a anion). COMPOUNDS are formed.
  3. Covalent Bond
    Share electrons to form MOLECULES. Formed by two nonmetals bonding together.
  4. Nonpolar-Covalent Bond
    A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distrubtion of electrical charge.
  5. Polar
    An uneven distribution of charge.
  6. Polar-Covalent Bond
    A covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons.
  7. Molecule
    A neutral group of atoms that are held togetherby covalent bonds.
  8. Molecular Compound
    A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules.
  9. Bond Energy
    The energy required to break a chemical bond and formed neutral isolated atoms.
  10. Octet Rule
    Octet rule refers to how elements generally prefer to form bonds so as to attain an octet configuration, i.e. have 8 electrons in their valence shell.
  11. Octet Rule Exceptions
    Hydrogen & Boron
  12. Electron-dot Notation
    An electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particluar element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol.
  13. Single Bond
    A covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms.
  14. Ionic Compound
    Composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
  15. Metallic Bonding
    The chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surronding sea of electrons is called metallic bonding.
  16. Malleability
    The ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets.
  17. Ductility
    The ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire.
  18. VESPR
    • Valence
    • Shell
    • Electron
    • Pair
    • Repulsion
  19. VESPR Theory
    States that repulsion between sets of valence electrons surronding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far a part as possible.
  20. Dipole
    Is created by equal but opposite charges that are seperated by a short distance.
  21. Atoms
    Most atoms are chemically bonded to other atoms. The three major types of chemical bonding are ionic, covalent, and metallic.
  22. VESPR Theory is used to
    Predict the shapes of molecules based on the fact elctron pairs strongly repel each other.
  23. Covalent Compounds
    Share e, nonmetals/nonmetals, some dissolve, solids are nonconductive, aqueous solutions are nonconductive, form MOLECULES.
  24. Ionic Compounds
    Transfer e, usually  dissolve, solids are nonconductive, aqueous solutions are usually conductive, forms COMPOUNDS/SALTS.
  25. Covalent Network Solid
    Share ein a network, form very HARD solids, sand, glass, diamond, etc.., noncondutive.
  26. Metallic Bonds
    Metals, solids are conductive, two or more metals together form an alloy, sea of electrons.
  27. Intermolecular Forces
    Forces of attraction which hold molecu;es to each other with weaker bonds.
  28. Dipole-Dipole
    A force of attraction between two molecules with a net dipole.
  29. Hydrogen Bond
    H bonded with F,O, or N then it has a very strong dipole-dipole bond.
  30. London Dispersion Force
    All molecules/elements.
  31. Lewis Dot Diagram
    Diagrams showing valence eand how atoms are bonded.
  32. Electronegativity Differences
    Ionic Bond: 4-1.7

    Covalent: 1.7-0

    Polar: .3-0

    Nonpolar: 0
  33. ABE
    A-Central Atom, B-Bonded Atom, E-Lone Pair on Central Atom
  34. Electron Domain
    Electron Domain is an area of electron density.
  35. Linear
    A2, AB, AB / 180°. Contains 2edomains. Only shape assumed by this molecule are molecules with two atoms but can contain more than two atoms.
  36. Trigonal Planar
    AB3 / 120°. Contains 3edomains.
  37. Bent or Angular
    AB2E / 120°. Contains 3edomains. One pair of lone electrons.
  38. Tetrahedral
    AB4 / 109.5°. Contains 4edomains.
  39. Trigonal Pyramidal
    AB3E / 107°. Contains 4e- domains. (Triangular Base)
  40. Bent or Angular
    2 Lone Pairs of val e-. AB2E2 .105°
  41. Molecule Polarity
    All molecules are either polar or nonpolar. Molecular polarity is determined by (1) bond polarity and (2) molecule shape.
  42. Trigonal Bipyramidal
    PCl/ AB5

  43. Octahedral
    • SF6 / AB
  44. Ressiance
  45. Expanding val e-
    Expanding valence electrons requires empty d orbitals.

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