Chapter 6 Chemistry
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Chapter 6 Chemistry
Chapter 6 Chemistry Review
An electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence e
of different atoms.
When electrons are transfered between elements. Formed by a metal (which loses e
and becomes a cation) and a nonmetal (which gains e
and becomes a anion). COMPOUNDS are formed.
Share electrons to form MOLECULES. Formed by two nonmetals bonding together.
A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distrubtion of electrical charge.
An uneven distribution of charge.
A covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons.
A neutral group of atoms that are held togetherby covalent bonds.
A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules.
The energy required to break a chemical bond and formed neutral isolated atoms.
Octet rule refers to how elements generally prefer to form bonds so as to attain an octet configuration, i.e. have 8 electrons in their valence shell.
Octet Rule Exceptions
Hydrogen & Boron
An electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particluar element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol.
A covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms.
Composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
The chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surronding sea of electrons is called metallic bonding.
The ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets.
The ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire.
States that repulsion between sets of valence electrons surronding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far a part as possible.
Is created by equal but opposite charges that are seperated by a short distance.
Most atoms are chemically bonded to other atoms. The three major types of chemical bonding are ionic, covalent, and metallic.
VESPR Theory is used to
Predict the shapes of molecules based on the fact elctron pairs strongly repel each other.
, nonmetals/nonmetals, some dissolve, solids are nonconductive, aqueous solutions are nonconductive, form MOLECULES.
, usually dissolve, solids are nonconductive, aqueous solutions are usually conductive, forms COMPOUNDS/SALTS.
Covalent Network Solid
in a network, form very HARD solids, sand, glass, diamond, etc.., noncondutive.
Metals, solids are conductive, two or more metals together form an alloy, sea of electrons.
Forces of attraction which hold molecu;es to each other with weaker bonds.
A force of attraction between two molecules with a net dipole.
H bonded with F,O, or N then it has a very strong dipole-dipole bond.
London Dispersion Force
Lewis Dot Diagram
Diagrams showing valence e
and how atoms are bonded.
Ionic Bond: 4-1.7
A-Central Atom, B-Bonded Atom, E-Lone Pair on Central Atom
Electron Domain is an area of electron density.
/ 180°. Contains 2e
domains. Only shape assumed by this molecule are molecules with two atoms but can contain more than two atoms.
120°. Contains 3e
Bent or Angular
E / 120°. Contains 3e
domains. One pair of lone electrons.
/ 109.5°. Contains 4e
E / 107°. Contains 4e
domains. (Triangular Base)
Bent or Angular
2 Lone Pairs of val e
All molecules are either polar or nonpolar. Molecular polarity is determined by (1) bond polarity and (2) molecule shape.
Expanding val e
Expanding valence electrons requires empty d orbitals.