bio ppl

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  1. Griffith
    • first to experiment with R and S cells
    • killed S cells w/ heat and mixed with R cells = dead mouse
    • transformation - concluded that something was transferring from S cells to R cells to make it kill the mouse
  2. Avery
    • after Griffith 
    • wanted to figure out which was the transforming agent - DNA, RNA, or protein
    • 1. injected RNase into RNA - still transformed & killed 
    • 2. injected protease into Protein - still transformed & killed 
    • 3. injected DNase into DNA - DID NOT TRANSFORM & DID NOT KILL
  3. Hershey-Chase
    • After Avery 
    • add on to avery's experiment - find out if the heredity material the viruses transfer was protein or DNA 
    • injected radioactive isotopes into bacteriophages (sulfur to protein and phosphorus to DNA) 
    • lots of DNA in E. Coli and very little protein 
    • concluded that DNA is the hereditary molecule in viruses
  4. Watson & Crick
    figured out double helix & shape of DNA
  5. Wilkins & Franklin
    took x-ray diffraction photos of DNA to help watson & crick reveal shape of DNA
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bio ppl
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