Evolution of land plants

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  1. What caused the diversification of Eukaryotes?
    • the oxygen evolution
    • prokaryotes started performing photosynthesis
  2. What is a Paraphyletic group?
    group that is missing some members from a common ancestor, often caused my a highly divergent taxa.
  3. What is the common ancestor of land plants?
    green algae
  4. What are synapomorphics?
    shared derived characteristics of two taxas
  5. What are the synapomorphic features of charophytes?
    • 1. rosette shaped cellulose making areas
    • 2. similar sperm structure (flagellated)
    • 3. Phragmoplast during cell division- constructs cell plate
  6. Synapomorphies of land plants (what makes them different than green algae)
    • 1. sporopollenin
    • 2. adapted for water conservation (waxy cuticle and stomata)
    • 3. multicellular dependent embryos
    • 4. vascular tissue
    • 5. resource compartmentalization
  7. Purpose of waxy cuticle
    waterproof and protection from microbial attack
  8. Purpose of stomata (pores)
    gas and water exchange, minimize water loss
  9. What is meant by a dependent embryo?
    parent provides nutrients and embryo has specialized placental cells.
  10. What are apical meristems?
    • at the tips of roots and shoots
    • cells produced differentiate into different tissues
  11. alternation of generations
    alternate between haploid (sperm and egg) and diploid (sporophyte)
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Evolution of land plants
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