Evolution of land plants
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What caused the diversification of Eukaryotes?
- the oxygen evolution
- prokaryotes started performing photosynthesis
What is a Paraphyletic group?
group that is missing some members from a common ancestor, often caused my a highly divergent taxa.
What is the common ancestor of land plants?
What are synapomorphics?
shared derived characteristics of two taxas
What are the synapomorphic features of charophytes?
- 1. rosette shaped cellulose making areas
- 2. similar sperm structure (flagellated)
- 3. Phragmoplast during cell division- constructs cell plate
Synapomorphies of land plants (what makes them different than green algae)
- 1. sporopollenin
- 2. adapted for water conservation (waxy cuticle and stomata)
- 3. multicellular dependent embryos
- 4. vascular tissue
- 5. resource compartmentalization
Purpose of waxy cuticle
waterproof and protection from microbial attack
Purpose of stomata (pores)
gas and water exchange, minimize water loss
What is meant by a dependent embryo?
parent provides nutrients and embryo has specialized placental cells.
What are apical meristems?
- at the tips of roots and shoots
- cells produced differentiate into different tissues
alternation of generations
alternate between haploid (sperm and egg) and diploid (sporophyte)
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