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2014-02-23 12:58:31
thoracic Lumbar spine chapter 13

thoracic and lumbar spine chapter 13
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  1. list and describe 8 risk factors for back pain:
    • getting older: common
    • poor physical fitness: common
    • overweight: stress the back, cause pain
    • heredity: arthritis
    • disease: arthritis, cancer
    • career: lift, push, pull, twisting your back or sitting at desk all day
    • smoking: not enought nutrients to the disks in your back
    • past injury
    • pregnancy:
  2. list how many vertebrae are in each of the following regions

    • cervical: 7
    • thoracic: 12
    • lumbar: 5
    • sacrum: 5
    • coccyx: 4

    total: 33
  3. laterally projecting, arising from the laminae, this structure provids an attachment site for eh spins intrinsic ligaments and increases the muscles mechanical advantage:
    transverse process
  4. the anuglation of this structure relavite to the vertebrae limits extension of the spine:
    spinous process
  5. the protective tunnel thru which the spinal cord passes is the:

    narrowing of this canal is called:
    • neural arch
    • narrowing of canal: stenosis
  6. a common site for stress fx's in the lumbar spine, the area between the superior and inferior facets of a vertebra are called:
    pars interarticularis
  7. the space where spinal nerve roots exit the vertebral column is called:
    intervertebral foramen
  8. the transverse processes thicken to articulate with the ribs 1-10 forming the:
    costotransverse joint

    ribs 11 and 12 do not articulate with the transverse process
  9. the joint between each rib and the verterbral bodies are called:
    costovertebral joint
  10. the weight of the torso and skull is transmitted to the lower extremity thru this joint, also lower extremity ground rxn forces transmitted thru the spinal column thru this joint:
    sacroiliac joint
  11. when the 1st vertebra fails to unite with the remainer of the sacrum, forming a serperate vertebra having characteristics similar to those of the lumbar spine is called:
  12. when the 5th lumbar becomes fused with the sacrum:
  13. what are the fxn of the intervertebral disks:
    • increase total ROM available¬†to the spinal column
    • shock absorbers of longitudinal and rotational stresses
  14. the intervertebral disk is formed by a tough, dense outer layer called:

    the flexible inner layer is called:
    • the intervertebral disk is formed by a tough, dense outer layer called:¬†annulus fibrosus
    • the flexible inner layer is called: nucleus pulposus
  15. physical activity such as running compresses which intervertebral disks:

    what is the result:
    • physical activity such as running compresses which intervertebral disks: T7-L1 and L5-S1
    • result: decreased ROM in lumbar spine after activity
  16. the annulus fibrousus and the posterior longitudinal ligament are richly innervated by sensory nerves.

    this nerve supply can account for much of the pain associated with disk degeneration or herniation called:
    diskogenic pain
  17. list the 3 accessory motions that occur at the facet joints:
    • anterior/posterior glide (or flexion)
    • lateral glide (or extension)
    • compression and distraction (or side bending and rotation)
  18. the union between an intervertebral disk and the superior and inferior vertebrae forms the:
    cartilaginous joint

    the facet joint represents the synovial articulations
  19. the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) spans the length of:
    vertebral column from the occiput to the sacrum
  20. the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL):

    allows passage of:

    • thickens has it passes over the intervertebral disks, attaching to their margins
    • allow the passage of: blood vessels
    • limits: flexion of the spine
  21. the anterior and medial muscles of the thigh are innervated by which plexus:
    lumbar plexus
  22. the plexus that supplies the muscles of the buttocks and the muscles of the posterior femur and the entire lower leg:
    sacral plexus, via the sciatic nerve
  23. list the 3 distinct sections of the sciatic nerve:
    • tibial nerve: formed by the anterior branches of the upper five nerve roots
    • common peroneal nerve: formed by the posterior branches of the upper 4 nerve roots
    • tibial nerve: innervates the hamstring muscles
  24. which group of muscles primarily fxn to provide respirtation and movement associated with upper extremity and scapula indirectly influcing the spinal column:
    extrinsic muslces