EOS 240 MT

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spb83
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EOS 240 MT
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2014-04-15 18:39:44
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EOS 2420 MT
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EOS 2420 MT
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  1. One definition of geochemistry may be-

    a) the chemistry of elements in the earth and solar system

    b) the dynamics of ground water

    c) the exchange of heat between crust and mantel
    a) the chemistry of elements in the earth and solar system
  2. A closed geochemical system-

    a) exchanges energy and matter with surrounding

    b) exchange only energy with the surroundings

    c) exchange only matter with the surrondings
    b) exchange only energy with the surroundings
  3. thermodynamic reactions differ from kinetic reactions in that-

    a) they are not reversible

    b) they are reversible

    c) they measure the rate of reaction
    b) they are reversible
  4. studies of stellar spectra indicate that in the universe-

    a) there is much more beryllium then hydrogen or helium

    b) there is less berryllium then hydrogen or helium

    c) hydrogen, helium and beryllium are equally abundant
    b) there is much less berryllium then H or He
  5. explosive nuclear synthesis reactions in a super nova produce

    a) only hydrogen and helium

    b) elements between carbon and iron by nuclear fission

    c)elements heavier the iron by fission reactions
    a) only H and He
  6. A periodic table structure useful to geochemists might be grouped by?

    a) element density

    b) ionic potential

    c) affinity for sulpher
    b) a periodic table useful to geochemists may be grouped by ionic potential
  7. weathering is generally though of as?

    a) a combo of bio, chem, and phys properties

    b) dissolution of limestone by rain water

    c) the action of frost and ice to break up a rock
    a) a combo of biological chemical and physical properties
  8. global climate (e.g. rainfall, temp)?

    a) has very little effect on weathering processes

    b) only effects weathering rates in tropical regoins

    c) significantly effects weathering process world wide
    c) significantly effects weathering worldwide
  9. carbonic acid, H2CO3 formed when CO2 dissolves in water is?

    a) a weak acid

    b) a strong acid

    c) an organic acid
    a) carbonic acid is a weak acid
  10. A solution of weak acid and its conjugate base will?

    a) shaow a large pH change on addition of a strong acid

    b) precipitate a yellow solid from the sollution

    c) show very little change in pH on addition of a strong acid
    c) show very little ph change

    weak acids do not easily disociate (turn to water and saly)
  11. acids are?

    a) proton donating compounds

    b) proton accepting compounds

    c) proton accepting and donating compounds
    a) they are donating compounds

    ...which is why the end up as blah blah blah something minus
  12. the solubility of salts (e.g. CaSO4) in water reflects?

    a) only changing water temp

    b) only the water density calculated from specific gravity

    c) solubility products predicted by the law of mass action
  13. c) solubility products predicted by the law of mass action
  14. thermodynamic state extensive variables are/

    a) proportional to the quantity of the material in a system

    b) not proportional to the quantity of the material in a system

    c) only depend on molar volume of system components
    a) proportional to the quantity of the material in the system
  15. the entropy of an isolated system will achieve?

    a) a maximum when the system is in stable equilibrium

    b) a minimum when the system is in stable equilibrium

    c) unchanged state when the system is in stable equilibrium
  16. a) entropy of an isolated system achieves stable equilibrium at maximum entropy
  17. the gibbs free energy of a rxn?

    a) increase to a max at equil

    b) decreases to a min at equil

    c) remains unchanged at equil,
    b) gibbs energy decreases to a min at equilibrium

    essentially it does the opposites of entropy
  18. iron aluminum and manganese in sea water are-

    a) conserved non reactive elemetns

    b) essential for algae production

    c) reactive, not conserved elements
    c) iron aluminum and manganese are reactive, not conserved elements in seawater
  19. in an exothermic rxn-

    a) heat flows from the system into the surrounding

    b) heat flows from surroundings into system

    c) there is no heat flow
    a) heat flows out fo the system and into the surroundings

    always from the perspective of the system, exo= exit endo=into
  20. ocean salinity is-

    a) total mass of solids dissolved in 1 kg of sea water

    b) concentration of magnesium and sulphate in sea water

    c) another term for seawater density
    a) total mass of dissolved solids in 1 kg of sea water

    think of growing hydro and dissolved salts
  21. deep ocean currents are driven by?

    a) sea water density

    b) ocean winds and current

    c) volcanic activity
    a) sea water density (which is effected by dissolved solids and temp)
  22. in oceans the carbonate-bicarbonate system-

    a) releases oxygen into the atmosphere

    b) controls the ionic balance and buffers sea water

    c) is a key control of trace elements specification
    b) controls the ionic balance and buffers sea water
  23. seawater alkalinity controls?

    a) total hydroxl ion concentration

    b) short term ionic balance

    c) dissolved organic carbon concentration
    a) alkalinity controls hydroxyl ion concentration
  24. manganese nodules are typical of?

    a) shallow ocean and river delta sediments

    b) restricted current circulation marine basins

    c) authigenic minerals in deep ocean sediments
    c) authuigenic (in situ) minerals in deep ocean seds
  25. sodium and chlorine in the ocean have?

    a) less then 1000 yrs residency time

    b) much more then 1000 yrs residency time

    c) variable residence time depending on temperature
    b) much more then 1000 yrs residency time
  26. magnesium and bicarbonate are removed from the ocean by?

    a) reverse weathering reactions in deep ocean sediment

    b) precipitation of magnesium bicarbonate

    c) reaction with hot basalt near submarine vulcanism
    b) ecipitation of magnesium bicarbonate
  27. in deep ocean sediments clacite is?

    a) more soluble then aragonite

    b) less solubale then arragonit

    c) equally sollubal to arragonite
    b) less solubale then arragonit
  28. the thermocline is an ocean boundry seperating

    a) warmer surface water from colder deeper water

    b) carbonate under saturated and carbonate saturated water

    c) oxygen surface water from oxygen poor deep water
    a) thermoclines seperate temperatures

    • theremo=temp
    • cline=line
  29. a bjerrum diagram predicts that in the water pH range 2-12

    a)carbonate ion and carbonic acid activity are equal at pH 10.3

    b) maximum natural pH buffering is between pH 6.4-10.3

    c) bicarbonate ion is the most abundant ion below pH 6.4
    b) that the maximum natural pH buffering is between 6.4 and 10.3

    think of that dumb graph with the three curves...we are talking about the center one
  30. the ideal gas law PV=nRT is defined as 

    a) an expression for predicting number n of molecules of gas

    b) an expressions of henrys law of partial pressure

    c) an equation of state for an ideal hypothetical gas
    c) an equation of state for an ideal hypothetical gas
  31. a geochemical barrier to trace element mobility in fresh water is?

    a) a change in water density

    b) the absorption of metal ions to organic matter in sediment

    c) a very low pH fresh water enviornment
    b) the absorption of metal ions to organic matter in sediment
  32. heat cannot spontaneously pass from a cold body to a hot body is?

    a) a statement of thermodynamics 2nd law

    b) a concept often disproved by mathematics

    c) a statment of thermodynamic first law
    a) 2nd law

    1st law is created/destroyed

    2nd is goal to reach equil
  33. ideally a mineral will disolve in a sollution when?

    a) the ion activity is lower then the solubility product

    b) the ion activity is higher the solubility product

    c) they are eqyual
    a) a mineral will dissolve if the solubility product Ksp is higher then the ion activity
  34. binding energy is?

    a) a calculated energy that measures atom nucleus stability

    b) energy of a strong force that binds neutron to protron

    c) energy of a weak force that binds an  electron to a protron
    a) a calculated energy that measures atom nucleus stability
  35. the stallard edmond classification is 
    a) using trace element cations

    b) major element cations

    c) sediment load
    b) using major element cations
  36. the atomic number indicates-

    a) the number of protons in an atom

    b) the number of nuetrons in an atom

    c) the number of electrons in an atom
    The number of protons
  37. Oxidation is the 

    A) gain of electrons by an electron acceptor
    B) loss of electrons by electron donor
    C) loss of protons by an electron donor
    D)gain of electorns by the electron donor
    B) oxidation is the loss of electrons by an electron donor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. based on gibbs free energy for the release of electrons what is the indicator of the strongest oxidizing agent?
    the most negative ΔG
  39. to calculate the measuered volts (V) from standard electric potential (E°) use the formula____
    E°-0.295*log10([e-reciever/e-donnor)
  40. the stable light isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and sulphur are useful for studying enviornmental geochemistry becasue?

    A) they can easily be measured with field tests
    B)they can exist in different oxidation states
    C)the relative mass difference between isotopes is small
    D) stable isotopes only form ionic bonds
    B) they occur in diffrent oxidation states
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. a negative delta 13C value measured in a sediment sample indicates?
    A) the sample is enriched relative to a standard
    B) the sample has more 12C than 13C isotope
    C) the sample is depleted relative to a standard
    C) it is depleted compared to a standard

    you cannot have an acctual concentration less than 0 so to be negative it must be relative to something
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. A typical sequence of bacteria mediated oxidation - reduction reactions in ocean sediment from the surface to deeper in the sediment may be:

    (a) Carbon to CO2, nitrate to N2, Fe3+ to Fe2+ , sulphate to H2S, carbon to CH4.

    (b) Sulphate to H2S, Fe3+ to Fe2+, carbon to CO2, carbon to CH4.

    (c) Carbon to CO2, nitrate to N2, Fe2+ to Fe3+ , sulphate to H2S, carbon to CH4.

    (d) Carbon to CH4, carbon to CO2, nitrate to N2, sulphate to H2S.
    A)  spell out CoN-FeSH

    • carbon->CO2
    • Nitrogen-->N2
    • Fe3+--->Fe2+
    • Sulp---> H2S
    • Carbon-CH4

    they are all loosing an electron
  43. oligotrophic   vs    eutrophic
    they are essentially opposites

    oligotrophic means lots of dissolved oxygen but little nutrient

    eutrophic means lots of nutrients but little dissolved oxy
  44. Sampling freshwater lake bottom sediment in British Columbia is a very effective way for detecting concealed Cu-Pb-Zn-Au mineralization because:

    (a) Mineral deposits are always found under lakes.

    (b) There are many lakes everywhere in British Columbia.

    (c) Metals are strongly absorbed and enriched in lake sediment organic matter.

    (d) There are always metal-rich diagentic minerals in lake bottom sediments.
    c) organic mater (esp. at lake bottoms) absorbs and enriches metals
  45. what is the blocking temperature of a rock/mineral?
    the rock cooling temperature when radiogenic daughter isotopes begin to form
  46. what is an isochron
    a line, in this case on an isotope ratio graph, indicating events that happened at the same time.
  47. pH 3 is____ compared to pH 8 which is
    below 7 is acidic = high H+


    above 7 is basic

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