compounds composed of single or multiple sugars. The name means "carbon and water" and a chemical shorthand for carbohydrate is CHO, signifying carbon Hydrogen and oxygen.
a disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes known as malt sugar
long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber also call polysaccharides
a disaccharide composed of glucose ad galactose. Sometimes known as mild sugar
sugars, including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units. The basic sugar unit is a molecule containing six carbon atoms, together with oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; sometimes known as table, beet, or cane sugar and , often, as simply sugar.
a single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy; sometimes known as blood sugar or dextrose.
a highly branched polysaccharide that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as storage form of glucose. Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods.
acidic, fat-related compounds that can arise from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available.
a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration. It assists cells in drawing glucose from the blood.
Monosaccharide + Monosaccharide=
Names of the monosaccharides
Glucose and fructose and galactose
Dames of the disaccharides
a family of organic compounds solubl in organic solvents but not in water. Lipids include riglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols
a member of the group of lipids known as sterols; a soft, waxy substance made in the body for a variety of purposes and also found in animal-derived foods.
one of the three main classes of dietary lipids. Sterols have a structure similar to that of cholesterol
a phospholipid manufactured by the liver and also found in many foods; a major constituent of cell membranes
low-density lipoproteins; lipoproteins that transport lipids from the liver to other tissues such as muscle and fat; contain a large proportion of cholesterol
high-density lipoprotein; lipoproteins that return cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for dismantling and disposal; contain a large proportion of protein.
omega-6 fatty acid
a polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond six carbons from the end of the carbon chain. Linoleic acid is an example
Omega-3 fatty acid
a polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond three carbons from the end of the carbon chain. Linolenic acid is an example
EPA and DHA
omega-3 fatty acids made from linolenic acid in the tissues of fish
Functions of fat in the body
Organ support and insulation
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen oxygen, and nitrogen and arranged as strands of amino acids. Some amino acids also contain the element sulfur
Essential amino acid
amino acids that either cannot be synthesized at all by the body or cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet physiological need. Also called indispensable amino acids
the unique chemical structure attached to the backbone of each amino acid that differentiates one amino acid from another.
the building blocks of protein. Each has an amine group at one end, an amine group at the other, and a distinctive side chain
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catliysts
the irreversible change in a protein's folded shape brought about by heat, acids, bases, alcohol, salts of heavy metals, or other agents.
two or more proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other
the strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food. Such protein combinations are sometimes called complementary proteins.
Protein Energy Malnutrition PEM
the world's most widespread malnutrition problem. Including both marasmus and kwashiorkor and states in which they overlap: also called protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM)
a form of PEM related to protein malnutrition and infections with a set of recognizable symptons, such as edema.
a form of PEM related to protein malnutrition and infections, with a set of recognizable symptoms, such as edema.
Basal Metabolic Rate
The rate at which the body uses energy to support its basal metabolism