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Why is packaging a coordinated system?
Involves many different layers - Primary, secondary, tertiary...
Why is food science important for food packaging?
- Interaction between food and package
- Requirements of food determine the efficiency of the packaging
Why is materials science important in food packaging?
- Developing new materials
- Understand properties of materials
- Modulate properties of materials
- Determine the performance of food package
What are the different chemical classes of packaging?
- Petroleum based and cellulose based
- Started with cellulose, then moved to petroleum for convenience. Now we are moving back for sustainability
What was the first use of packaging?
Egyptians believed to be using cast and/or blown glass bottles and jars, and papyrus form of paper for packaging
How has the composition of glass changed since 3000 BC?
Composition of glass hasn't changed since 3000BC
What was the first sign of food labelling?
- 20-180 BC
- Greeks labelling olive oil amphora handles, indicating that the oil was produced in Rhodes
- Ensures quality and safety of shipment of oil
- Labelling was uniform
What was the first flexible packaging material?
- Chinese using flexible packaging made from mulberry bark
- Very fragile - not good integrity
- Flexible, cheap, can print on it
- Paper is the first flexible packaging
Who first invented paper making?
- Chinese developed paper making
- Paper was perfected in the Arabic world 751AD
When did paper making spread to the rest of the world?
Spread to Europe in 1310 AD and then to North America in 1690 AD
Why were cork stoppers used to close bottles in 1500AD?
- Need compression/expansion
- Highly elastic with its near impermeability
- Cellular structure can compress/expand
What did we replace corks with in 1990s and why?
- Replaced with synthetic plastic
- Stops cork taint
What is cork taint?
- SH2 is reduced
- Reduction in O2 supply
- Chlorophenol compounds in pesticides and industrial pollutants
- Chlorophenol, with the help of naturally occurring fungi turns to chloroanisol which causes cork taint
Who invented heat preservation in glass containers?
What did Peter Durand do?
- 1810 - invents a tin canister for heat-processed food
- Initially made of only iron which rusted
- So coated with tin
What was the problem with the first 'tin can'?
- Initially made of only iron --> rust problem
- So they coated with tin
What were the problems with the first mason jars?
Problem of Botulism
What is the difference between paper and paper-board?
Paper-board is thicker
What is responsible for the white colour of milk bags?
What is 'sunlight flavour' of milk?
- High exposure to sunlight
- Oxidation of fats
- Nutritive value (vit C and B)
How is cellophane made?
Made from cellulose and diaphene
What is a thermoplastic polymer?
Can be melted and moulded again
What is a thermoset polymer?
Cannot be melted and moulded again
What are the properties of LDPE?
- High degree of short and long chain branching
- Weaker intermolecular forces
- Low strength
What are the properties of HDPE?
- Low degree of branching
- High tensile strength
- High barrier properties
- Always opaque
- Similar properties to polypropylene
What are the properties of LLDPE?
- Linear polymer with significant number of short branches
- High intermolecular forces
What is PVDC often used for?
Used to coat many polymers to improve properties
What is the difference between PVC and PVDC?
- PVDC has superior barrier properties
- PVDC has higher chlorine content --> environmental impact
What is used for boil-in-bag products?
- Perforated thermoplastic PP/PA
- Must be able to withstand high temp
What are spiral-wound composite juice cans made of?
Why are all-aluminum beer cans more cost-effective?
Only have to seal one end
What is MAP and how is it used for partially baked pizza?
- Modified atmosphere packaging
- Less processed products
- 2% ethanol = 4-5x increase in shelf life
What are ethanol vapour generators?
- Anti-mold sachet
- Silicon dioxide powder --> 55% ethanol
- Mask ethanol with strong flavours such as vanilla
What is Fretek?
Ethanol and acetic acid
How does the government regulate food packaging?
- Type of materials
- How the package is processed
What are some reasons for the growth of packaging?
- The industrial revolution
- New packaging materials and equipment
- Changing demographics
- Changes in merchandising
What happened during the industrial revolution?
- Inventions and machinery led to mass production
- Shift from agricultural to factory workers