Pharmacology Exam 3: Inflammation & Infection

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Pharmacology Exam 3: Inflammation & Infection
2014-02-20 12:51:35

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  1. Antibacterial
    ability to kill bacteria or interfere with the ability of bacteria to grow and replicate
  2. Antibiotic
    drug that has the ability to kill or inhibit bacterial growth and replication
  3. Antibiotic resistance
    ability of certain bacteria to survive and multiply in the presence of antibiotics
  4. Anti-infective
    agent or substance with antibacterial, antiviral, and anti fungal properties
  5. Anti-inflammatory agent
    drug indicated when the inflammatory response is inappropriate, abnormal, or persistent, or destroys tissue
  6. Antimicrobial agent
    drug used to prevent or treat infections caused by pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites
  7. Bacteria
    single-celled microorganisms that do not have nuclei and reproduce by fission or splitting
  8. Bactericidal
    agent that kills bacteria
  9. Bacteriostatic
    agent that inhibits bacterial growth and replication
  10. Broad spectrum
    effective against a wide range of bacteria
  11. Colonization
    presence and growth of microorganisms on host tissues
  12. Community-acquired infection
    infection caused by microorganisms that originated in a setting outside of a health care facility
  13. Detection of antigens
    technique to identify pathogens that uses features of culture and serology but reduces the time required for diagnosis
  14. Fungi
    plant-like microorganisms that lives as parasites on living tissue or as saprophytes on decaying organic matter
  15. Inflammation
    Immunological response to allergy, infection, or injury that increases the migration of leukocytes and blood flow to assist in repairing tissues
  16. Nosocomial infection
    infection acquired from microorganisms in hospitals and other health care facilities
  17. Opportunistic
    microorganisms in normal flora that become pathogenic under conditions that are favorable for their (over)growth
  18. Penicillin-binding proteins
    proteins in bacteria that serve as target sites for penicillin to bind
  19. Serology
    method of identifying infectious agents by measuring the antibody level (titer) in the serum of an infected host
  20. Susceptibility
    vulnerability of the bacteria to an antibiotic's effects
  21. Viruses
    intracellular parasites that survive only in living tissues
  22. Antiprostaglandin
    drug that inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins
  23. Antipyretic
    drug that has the ability to lower body temperature
  24. Arachidonic acid
    phospholipid released in the cell membrane in response to cellular injury
  25. Cyclooxygenase
    enzyme that produces prostaglandins from arachidonic acids
  26. Hyperuricemia
    elevated levels of uric acid in the blood resulting from accelerated generation of uric acid through purine metabolism or impaired renal excretion of uric acid
  27. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
    medication that inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins; used to prevent and treat mild to moderate pain and inflammation
  28. Prostaglandin
    chemical mediator found in most body tissues; helps regulate many cell functions and participate in the inflammatory response as well as initiate uterine contractions in labor
  29. Pyrogen
    fever-producing agent
  30. Reye's syndrome
    potentially fatal disease characterized by encephalopathy and fatty liver accumulations; associated with the use of aspirin and NSAIDS after viral infections such as chickenpox or influenza in children and adolescents
  31. Salicylism
    toxic effects of a salicylate drug; may occur with an acute overdose or with chronic use of therapeutic doses, especially the higher doses taken for anti-inflammatory effects
  32. Tophi
    deposits or uric acid crystals in the joints, kidneys, and soft tissues
  33. Uricosuric
    drug that increases urinary excretion of uric acid
  34. Addison's disease
    primary adrenocortical insufficiency with inadequate production of cortisol and aldosterone
  35. Addisonian crisis
    condition that mimics hypovolemic and septic shock; also known as adrenocortical insufficiency
  36. Aldosterone
    mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to increase sodium reabsorption by the kidneys and indirectly regulate blood levels of potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate; also regulates pH, blood volume, and blood pressure
  37. Corticosteroid
    steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; examples include androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids
  38. Cortisol
    the main glucocorticoid secreted as part of the body's response to stress
  39. Cushing's disease
    adrenocortical hyper function; may result from excessive corticotropin or primary adrenal tumor
  40. Glucocorticoid
    adrenal cortical hormone that protects the body against stress and affects protein and carbohydrate metabolism
  41. Immunosuppression
    suppression of the immune system
  42. Mineralocorticoid
    steroid hormone released by the adrenal cortex to promote sodium and water retention and potassium excretion
  43. Negative feedback mechanism
    when the output of a system affects the stimulus for the system (e.g., hormone secretion produces an effect that shuts off the stimulus for further hormone secretion)
  44. Steroid
    lipid-soluble hormone produced by the gonadal organs or the adrenal cortex
  45. Beta-lactamase
    enzyme produced by some bacteria that attacks the beta-lactam ring, rendering the drug ineffective and leading to a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics
  46. Cross-allergenicity
    allergy to a drug of another class with a similar chemical structure
  47. Extended-spectrum
    bactericidal activity against a wide-range of bacteria
  48. Superinfection
    infection after a previous infection; typically caused by microorganisms that are resistant to the antibiotics used previously
  49. Concentration-dependent bactericidal effect
    relation of bactericidal ability of a drug to its concentration; the greater the concentration of the drug, the faster and the more extensive the killing of the bacteria. The goal is to maximize concentration of the drug. Once-daily dosing - single daily amino glycoside dosing, typically using a dose of 7 mg per kg every 24 hours, or longer in patients with renal impairment.
  50. Ototoxicity
    adverse effects on the structures of the ear, especially the cochlea and auditory nerve
  51. Postantibiotic effect
    persistent effect of an antimicrobial on bacterial growth after brief exposure of the organisms to a drug
  52. Crystalluria
    presence of crystals in the urine, indicating renal irritation
  53. Sulfonamide
    older, broad-spectrum, bacteriostatic drug (organic sulfur compounds) that is rarely used for systemic infection because of microbial resistance and the development of more effective or less toxic drugs; also known as sulfa drug
  54. Tetracycline
    antibiotic derived from chlortetracycline; used to treat a broad variety of infections
  55. Urinary antiseptic