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What is self-esteem?
- One's feelings of self-worth
- *the extend to which we feel that we are reasonable, moral, and smart
Why is self-esteem important?
- -in influences our subjective experiences and quality of life
- *high SE people experience less depression and have a positive view in life.
Why do people have a desire to maintain self-esteem?
- People want to feel good about themselves
- *have a positive concept
What may be a reason to maintain self esteem?
People desire to see themselves as consistent to think themselves of a stable self concept
IN which 2 instances does Cognitive dissonance occur?
-when we engage in a behavior that is inconsistent with our attitudes
-we hold 2 inconsistent cognitions
What does cognitive dissonance create? And why?
Psychological tension bc people feel pressured to reduce or remove the distress.
3 ways to reduce dissonance?
- -change behavior
- *make behavior consistent with cognitions
- **eat more veggies
- -change the cognition
- *change one of the dissonant cognitions
- **too many veggies can be bad for you
- -add new cognitions
- *add consonant cognitions
- **eating veggies is inconvenient, I'm happier w/o them
Insufficient justification of effort) what is counter attitudinal advocacy?
- When you are induced to publicly state an attitude contrary to your own attitude
Insufficient justification of effort) What is external justification?
- Situational explanations for dissonant behavior
- *politicians need votes
Insufficient justification of effort) Internal justification
- Reducing dissonance by bringing your attitude in line with the behavior
- *politicians who starts believing what he/she saying
Force3d compliance paradigm) What was the result of the experiment?
People who received only 1 dollar enjoyed the task and was more willing to participate in similar experiment than the people who received 20 dollars.
Why less (small inducements often leads to more (greater attitude change) after attitude discrepant behavior) If the reasons for engaging in attitude discrepant behavior has clear reasons and dissonance is weak then what will happen to attitude change?
Small attitude change
Why less (small inducements often leads to more (greater attitude change) after attitude discrepant behavior) If the reasons for engaging in attitude discrepant behavior has unclear reasons and the dissonance is strong then what will happen to attitude change?
There will be a large attitude change
Mild punishments/threats) what was the conclusion of this experiment?
- If a child received a mild threat then they were less likely to play with toy several weeks later when no threat of punishment occurred.
- *kids generated their own reasons for why they didn't like the toy
What is post-decision dissonance?
After we make a decision, we tend to enhance the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devalue the rejected alternative.
What is justification of effort?
- The tendency for individuals to increase their liking of something they worked hard to get
- *fraternity initiation
- **the more effort they put into the more people report liking the group.
Do all dissonant cognition cause discomfort?
- No, some people remain comfortable when facing 2 contrary thoughts
- *valuing education but skipping class
If some people can remain comfortable facing 2 contrary thoughts then when is dissonance most likely to occur?
When we do something that threatens important aspects of our self-concept.
Condom use) what was the conclusion of the experiment?
- People who made safe-sex tape and then recalled times they failed to use condoms showed highest rate of buying condoms
- *hypocrisy group
Extensions of dissonance theory) what is the self-affirmation theory?
- Suggests that people will reduce impact of dissonance on their self-concept by focusing on and affirming their competence on some other dimension
- *unrelated self enhancing can reduce dissonance
- **performed poorly on exam but affirm that your are a great friend to Jane
HOw can self evaluation maintenance be threatened by others behavior?
How threatened one is depends on both the closeness of the relationship and on the personal relevance of the behavior
Self evaluation maintenance) If there Is no personal relevance and closeness of relationship then what occurs?
"bask in the reflected glory
Self evaluation maintenance) If there is a personal relevance and closeness of relationship to the person then what occurs?
Person will feel bad and want to reduce self-threat
Self evaluation maintenance) what are 4 ways to reduce threat?
-distance yourself from your friend
-change your area of relevance
-try to be better than the friend next time
-try to make friend do worse
What was the conclusion of the experiment of Teaser and SMith?
- You don't always help the one you like
- *an higher interaction with someone led to harder clues.