cell biology

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cell biology
2014-02-21 10:52:22
cell biology
cell biology
biochem test 1
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  1. cytosol
    • soup in which all other organisms reside
    • -contains water, ions, proteins and other solutes
    • -
  2. cytoplasm is made up of
    cystol and organelles
  3. function of nucleus
    • stores and protects genetic material (DNA)
    • -coordinates cellular activities such as protein synthesis, cell division, and metabolism
  4. how much of cells volume does nucleus take up
  5. nucleus contains what 5 things
    • nucleolus
    • nuclear envelope- separates it from rest of cell
    • nuclear pores- to pass things out of cell
    • chromatin- strands of packaged DNA around histone proteins
    • chromosomes- the most condensed form of chromatin, can only see during cell division
    • 23 pairs or 46 total
    • *sperm and oocytes only have 26 chromosomes total
  6. function of nucleolus
    • synthesis and assembly of ribosomes
    • -most cells contain at least one, some contain more
    • -larger and more prominent in cells that produce protein (protein biosynthesis=assembly of ribosomes)
  7. function of ribosome
    protein synthesis- translation

    • composed of rRNA and 2 protein subunits
    • -large and small and only unite during protein sythesis
    • -are found attached to endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope, and free in cytoplasm (can be free as well as RNA)
  8. function of the endoplasmic reticulum in general(extension of the nuclear membrane)
    a network involved in protein synthesis, protein modification, protein packaging and export, and other cellular processes
  9. what is cisterna
    envaginations of the ER/ cisternal space
  10. function of rough ER
    • production and processing of proteins (translation and post translational processing)
    • -vesicles transport completed proteins to areas of the cell where needed or to the Golgi for further modification
    • -this is in close association with the nuclear envelope
  11. islet of langehans
    endocrine cells in pancreas that secrete insulin
  12. function of smooth er
    • synthesis and metabolism of lipids
    • -metabolism of carbs (gluconeogenesis)
    • -detox of drugs and poisons
    • -storage of calcium
    • **liver cells have abundant smooth er necessary for lipid and carb metabolism and detox reactions
  13. gluconeogenesis
    • the beginning  of glucose
    • glucose biosynthesis
  14. function of Golgi apparatus
    • distribution and shipping center of the cell
    • -provides further modification to proteins (post translation modifications) and lipids that have been synthesized in the ER
  15. Cis Face of Golgi apparatus
    • edge closest to the ER that receives incoming vesicles
    • -facing toward the nuclear envelope
  16. transface of Golgi apparatus
    • edge closest to plasma membrane and includes all outgoing vesicles
    • -facing out from nuclear envelope
  17. golgi
    molecules that have budded off the RER and have proteins on them
  18. function of lysosomes
    • garbage can of the cell
    • -digestion and degradation of cellular molecules
    • -contain 40 different hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases)
    • (lytic- means break down)
    • acidic pH (4.8)
    • *** very abundant in phagocytic WBC (macrophages and neutrophil) where they help destroy old cells and cellular components as well as foreign molecules
  19. lysosomal reactions
    • most are hydrolases (use water to cleave bonds)
    • lysosomal enzymes only active at low pH inside lysosomes (not active in the neutral pH of cytosol, this makes it inactive if released into here)
    • -proteins are broke down by enzymes into amino acids
    • -sugar molecules (saccharides) broke down by multiple enzymes (-ases to monosaccharide)
    • 3 fatty acid associated with triglycerides(both have fatty acid associated with them)
  20. function of peroxisomes
    • abundant in liver and kidney and funciotn in lipid metabolism and management of metabolic waste products
    • -have perioxide in them which is very powerful
    • -contain powerful
  21. function of mitochondria
    • generate ATP through aerobic respiration
    • --outer and inner membrane separated by intermembrane space
    • -inner membrane- electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation enzymes are imbedded here
    • -inner membrane (folded into cristae to increase surface area) surrounds inner "soup" called the mitochondrial matrix
  22. matrix of mitochondria
    contains multitude of enzymes, molecules, and mitochondrial DNA
  23. cytoskeleton function and what it contains
    • structure and shape
    • intracellular transport
    • cell motility
    • cell division
    • Contains microtubules (contains protein tubulin), intermidate filaments, and microfilaments (responsible for cell movement and contain actin and myosin)
  24. plasma membrane is specific to which organs of the body
    skin, pns (sensory)
  25. nucleus is specific to which organs in body
    cns and reproductive
  26. ribosomes, ER, and Golgi are specific to which system in body
    endocrine and pns
  27. endosomes, lysosomes are responsible for which system in the body
    digestive system
  28. cytoskeleton is specific to which system in body
  29. mitochondria specific to what system in body
    respiratory system
  30. cytosol specific to what system in body
    circulatory and lymphatic system
  31. what is most important organelle and what is structure
    • plasma membrane
    • -fluid mosaic of lipids, proteins, and carbs
    • 4 major membrane phospholipids
    • -hydrophobic effects drive membrane formation
  32. phospholipids are amphipathic what does this mean
    • have both polar (hydrophilic) and non polar (hydrophobic) characteristics
    • polar=charged
    • nonpolar=non charged- not like water so interacts with itself
  33. role of cholesterol in membranes
    • helps maintain membrane fluidity
    • provides a more solid bed for membrane proteins to stick to at the cell surface
    • -cholesterol and sphingomyelin form lipid rafts
  34. glycocalyx
    • sugar coat on the outside of some cells composed of a network of polysaccharides that project from cellular surface
    • chemically unique in everyone, allowing the body to distinguish self from non-self
    • may play role in cell adhesion, cell recognition, protection, and immunity.