Chapter 8

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  1. Define

    • pair of almond shaped organs located in the pelvic cavity
    • egg cells are formed and stored in the ovaries
  2. Define


    plural: ova
    female egg cell
  3. Define

    graafian follicles
    • 100,000 microscopic sacs that make up a large portion of the ovaries
    • each follicle contains an immature ovum
    • normally one graafian follicle develops to maturity monthly between puberty and menopause
  4. Define

    uterine tubes
    fallopian tubes

    *remember, for test purposes to use uterine tube
    pair of 5 inch tubes attached to the uterus, that provide a passageway for the ovum to move from the ovary to the uterus

    *not attached to the ovaries
  5. Define


    plural: fimbriae
    finger-like projections at the free end (the end away from the uterus) of the uterine tube

    *help draw the ovum into the uterine tube from the ovary
  6. Define

    • pear-sized and pear-shaped muscular organ that lies in the pelvic cavity
    • except during pregnancy when it enlarges and extends up into the abdominal cavity
    • its functions are menstruation, pregnancy, and labor
  7. Define

    inner lining of the uterus
  8. Define

    muscular middle layer of the uterus
  9. Define

    outer this layer that covers the surface of the uterus
  10. what are the three uterine layers, and how are they different?
    • endo/metr/i/um  - inner layer
    • my/o/metr/i/um - muscular middle layer
    • peri/metr/i/um   - thin outer layer, covers surface
  11. Define

    corpus, or body
    large central portion of the uterus
  12. Define

    rounded upper portion of the uterus
  13. Define

    cervix (Cx)
    narrow lower portion of the uterus

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  14. Define

    a 3-inch tube that connects the uterus to the outside of the body
  15. Define

    fold of membrane found near the opening of the vagina
  16. Define

    rectouterine pouch

    also called Douglas cul-de-sac
    pouch between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior wall of the rectum
  17. Define

    Bartholin glands
    pair of mucus producing glands located on each side of the vagina and just above the vaginal opening
  18. Define

    mammary glands

    or breasts
    • pair of milk producing glands of the female
    • each breast consists of 15-20 divisions, or lobes
  19. Define

    mammary papilla
    breast nipple

    * separate (not the same as) from the areola
  20. Define

    pigmented area around the breast nipple
  21. Define


    or external genitalia
    • two pairs of lips that surround the vagina
    •    external: labia majora
    •     internal: labia minora
  22. Define

    highly erogenous erectile body located anterior to the urethra

    *part of (included with) the vulva (external genitalia)
  23. Define


    *watch spelling, do not mix up with peritoneum
    • pelvic floor in both the male and female
    • in females it usually refers to the area between the vaginal opening and the anus
  24. arche/o
    combining form

    • first
    • beginning
  25. cervic/o
    combining form

  26. culp/o
    combining form

  27. culd/o
    combining form

    • cul-de-sac
    • Douglas cul-de-sac
    • rectouterine pouch
  28. episi/o
    combining form

  29. gynec/o
    combining form

  30. hymen/o
    combining form

  31. metr/o

    *note, the combining vowel with metr can be either 'o' or 'i', pay attention to correct spelling

    *the hysterical baby is riding on the metri/metro
  32. mamm/o
    combining form

  33. men/o
    combining form

  34. oophor/o
    combining form

  35. perine/o
    combining form

  36. salping/o

    *Salpinx is derived from the Greek term for trumpet.  The term was used for the uterine tubes because of their trumpet-like shape
    combining form

    • uterine tube
    • fallopian tube
  37. peri-

    surrounding (outer)
  38. -atresia

    *Note: for learning purposes this is presented as a suffix

    literally means no perforation or hole
    comprised of Greek a- meaning without, and tresia meaning perforation
    it may be used alone or combined with other word parts

    • absence of a normal body opening
    • occlusion
    • closure
  39. -salpinx

    *Note: for learning purposes this is presented as a suffix

    • uterine tube
    • fallopian tube
  40. a/men/o/rrhea
    absence of menstrual discharge
  41. Bartholin aden/itis

    also called bartholinitis
    inflammation of a Bartholin gland
  42. cervic/itis
    inflammation of the cervix
  43. colp/itis
    inflammation of the vagina
  44. dys/men/o/rrhea
    painful menstrual discharge
  45. endo/cervic/itis
    • inflammation of the inner (lining) of the cervix
    • *do not confuse with endometritis
  46. end/o/metr/itis
    inflammation of the inner (lining) of the uterus (endometrium, or inner layer)

    *do not confuse with endocervicitis
  47. hemat/o/salpinx
    blood in the uterine tube
  48. hydr/o/salpinx
    water in the uterine tube
  49. hyster/atresia
    closure of the uterus (uterine cavity)

    *think absence of opening of the uterus
  50. mast/itis
    inflammation of the breast
  51. men/o/metr/o/rrhagia

    *not the same as menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, pay attention on test
    • rapid flow of blood from the uterus at menstruation
    • and between menstrual cycles
    • increase amount
  52. men/o/rrhagia

    *not the same as menometrorrhagia or metrorrhagia, pay attention on test
    rapid flow of blood from the uterus at menstruation (increased amount)
  53. metr/o/rrhagia

    *not the same as menometrorrhagia or menorrhagia, pay attention on test
    rapid flow of blood from the uterus (between menstrual cycles)
  54. What is the difference between menometrorrhagia, menorrhagia, and metrorraghia?
    • menometrorrhagia - at and between cycles
    • menorrhagia - at menstruation
    • metrorrhagis - between cycles
  55. my/o/metr/itis
    inflammation of the uterine muscle (myometrium, or middle layer)
  56. olig/o/men/o/rrhea
    • scanty menstrual flow
    • less often
  57. oophor/itis
    inflammation of the ovary
  58. peri/metr/itis
    inflammation surrounding the uterus, perimetrium (outer layer)
  59. py/o/salpinx
    pus in the uterine tube
  60. salping/itis
    inflammation of the uterine tube
  61. salping/o/cele
    hernia of the uterine tube
  62. vulv/o/vagin/itis
    inflammation of the vulva and vagina
  63. adenomyosis

    *not built from word parts
    growth of endometrium into the muscular portion of the uterus
  64. breast cancer
    malignant tumor of the breast
  65. cervical cancer
    • malignant tumor of the cervix, which progresses from cellular dysplasia to carcinoma
    • its cause is linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
  66. endometrial cancer

    also called uterine cancer
    malignant tumor of the endometrium
  67. endometriosis

    *not built from word parts
    abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus in various areas in the pelvic cavity, including ovaries uterine tubes, intestines, and uterus
  68. fibrocystic breast disease
    a disorder characterized by one or more benign cysts in the breast
  69. fibroid tumor

    also called myoma of the uterus, or leiomyoma
    benign fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle
  70. ovarian cancer
    malignant tumor of the ovary
  71. pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    • inflammation of the female pelvic organs that can be caused by many different pathogens
    • if untreated, the infection may spread upward from the vagina, involving the uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, and other pelvic organs
    • an ascending infection may result in infertility, and in acute cases, fatal septicemia
  72. prolapsed uterus

    also called hyster/o/ptosis
    downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina
  73. toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
    • a severe illness characterized by high fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and myalgia (muscle pain), followed by hypotension (low blood pressure), and, in severe cases, shock and death
    • usually affects menstruating women using tampons
    • caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes
  74. vesic/o/vagin/al fistula

    *not built from word parts, but can help
    abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina
  75. cervic/ectomy
    excision of the cervix
  76. colp/o/perine/o/rrhaphy
    • suture of the vagina and perineum
    • performed to mend perineal vaginal tears
  77. colp/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the vagina
  78. colp/o/rraphy
    suture of the vagina (vaginal wall, or wall of the vagina)
  79. episi/o/perine/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the vulva and perineum
  80. episi/o/rrhaphy
    suture of (a tear in) the vulva
  81. hymen/ectomy
    excision of the hymen
  82. hymen/o/tomy
    incision of the hymen
  83. hyster/ectomy
    excision of the uterus
  84. hyster/o/pexy
    surgical fixation of the uterus
  85. hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy

    hyster/o/salping/o - oophor/ectomy
    excision of the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries
  86. mamm/o/plasty
    • surgical repair of the breast
    • performed to enlarge or reduce in size
    • or to reconstruct after removal of a tumor
  87. mast/ectomy
    surgical removal (excision) of a breast
  88. mast/o/pexy
    • surgical fixation of a breast
    • performed to lift sagging breast tissue, or to create symmetry
  89. oophor/ectomy
    excision of an ovary
  90. perine/o/rraphy
    suture of (a tear in) the perineum
  91. salping/ectomy
    excision of a uterine tube
  92. salpingo-oophorectomy

    salping/o - oophor/ectomy
    excision of a uterine tube and ovary
  93. salping/o/stomy
    • creation of an artificial opening in a uterine tube
    • performed to restore patency (the condition of being open, expanded, or unobstructed)
  94. vulv/ectomy
    excision of the vulva
  95. anterior and posterior colporraphy
    (A&P repair)
    • surgical repair of a weakened vaginal wall
    • It is done to correct a:
    • cystocele (protrusion of the bladder against the anterior wall of the vagina); and a
    • retrocele (protrusion of the rectum against the posterior wall of the vagina)
  96. conization

    also called a cone biopsy
    • the surgical removal of a cone-shaped area of the cervix
    • used in treatment for noninvasive cervical cancer
  97. dilation and curretage (D & C)


    *vernacular: dusting and cleaning
    • dilation (widening) of the cervix and scraping of the endometrium with an instrument called a curette.
    • It is performed to:
    • diagnose disease
    • to correct bleeding
    • and to empty uterine contents, such as tissue remaining after a miscarriage
  98. endometrial ablation
    • procedure to destroy or remove the endometrium by use of laser or thermal energy
    • used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding
  99. laparoscopy or laparoscopic surgery
    • visual examination of the abdominal cavity
    • accomplished by inserting a laparoscope through a tiny incision near the umbilicus
    • it is used for surgical procedures such as tubal sterilization (closure of uterine tubes), or biopsy of the ovaries
    • it may be used to diagnose endometriosis
  100. myomectomy

    *not built from word parts
    excision of a fibroid tumor (myoma) from the uterus
  101. sentinel lymph node biopsy
    • an injection of a blue dye and/or radioactive isotope used to identify the sentinel lymph nodes(s)
    • the first in the axillary chain and most likely to contain metastasis of breast cancer
    • the nodes are removed and microscopically examined
    • if negative, no more nodes are removed
  102. stereotactic breast biopsy
    a technique that combines mammography and computer-assisted biopsy to obtain tissue from a breast lesion
  103. tubal ligation

    also called tying of tubes
    • closure of the uterine tubes for sterilization by tying (ligation) (The act of binding or annealing)
    • the broader term 'tubal sterilization' includes cauterizing the cut ends
  104. uterine artery embolization (UAE)
    • minimally invasive procedure used to treat fibroids of the uterus by blocking arteries that supply blood to the fibroids
    • first, an arteriogram is used to identify the vessels
    • once identified, tiny gelatin beads, about the size of grains of sand, are inserted into the vessels to create a blockage
    • the blockage stops the blood supply to the fibroids causing them to shrink
  105. hyster/o/salping/o/gram
    radiographic image of the uterus and uterine tubes (after an injection of a contrast agent)
  106. mamm/o/gram
    radiographic image of the breast
  107. mamm/o/graphy

    also called digital mammography when images are obtained electronically and viewed on a computer
    radiographic imaging of th breast
  108. son/o/hyster/o/graphy
    • process of recording the uterus by use of sound
    • an ultrasound procedure
  109. colposcope
    instrument for visual examination of the vagina (and cervix)
  110. colposcopy
    visual examination (with a magnified view) of the vagina (and cervix)
  111. culd/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination of the Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)
  112. culd/o/scopy
    visual examination of the Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)
  113. hyster/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination of the uterus (uterine cavity)
  114. hyster/o/scopy
    visual examiation of the uterus (uterine cavity)
  115. culd/o/centesis
    surgical puncture to remove fluid from Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)
  116. transvaginal sonography (TVS)
    • an ultrasound procedure that uses a transducer placed in the vagina to obtain images of the ovaries, uterus, cervix, uterine tubes, and surrounding structures
    • used to:
    • diagnose masses such as ovarian cysts or tumors
    • to monitor pregnancy
    • and to evaluate ovulation for the treatment of infertility
  117. CA-125
    cancer antigen-125 tumor marker
    • a blood test used in the detection of ovarian cancer
    • it is also used to monitor treatment and to determine the extent of the disease
  118. Pap smear
    Papanicolaou smear
    Pap test
    • a cytological study of cervical and vaginal secretions
    • used to determine the presence of abnormal or cancerous cells
    • most commonly used to detect cancers of the cervix
  119. gynec/o/logist
    • a physician who studies and treats diseases of women
    • (female reproductive system)
  120. gynec/o/logy (GYN)
    • study of women
    • a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the female reproductive system
  121. gyn/o/path/ic
    pertaining to diseases of women
  122. leuk/o/rrhea
    white discharge (from the vagina)
  123. mast/algia
    pain in the breast
  124. mast/o/ptosis
    sagging breast
  125. men/arche

    (men/o + arche/o)
    • beginning of menstruation
    • usually occurring between the ages of 11-16
  126. vagin/al
    pertaining to the vagina
  127. vulv/o/vagin/al
    pertaining to the vulva and vagina
  128. dyspareunia

    *if sex is difficult or painful then you despair (dyspare) over the union (unia)
    difficult or painful intercourse
  129. fistula
    • abnormal passageway between two organs
    • or between an internal organ and the body surface
  130. hormone replacement therapy
    replacement of hormones (estrogen and/or progesterone) to treat symptoms associated with menopause
  131. menopause
    • cessation of menstruation
    • usually around the ages of 48-53
  132. premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
    • a syndrome involving physical and emotional symptoms occurring in the 10 days before menstruation
    • symptoms include nervous tension, irritability, mastalgia, edema, and headache
    • its cause is not fully understood
  133. speculum
    instrument for opening a body cavity to allow visual inspection
  134. what is the difference between latent and patent
    latent - asymptomatic

    patent - open

    patency - the condition of being open, expanded, or unobstructed
Card Set
Chapter 8
Female Reproductive System
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