Funeral History

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memaryme12
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26301
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Funeral History
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2010-07-13 21:10:31
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Funeral History Review
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  1. What were the various embalming procedures employed by the Egyptians and who got what? Page 5
    • 1. expensive over 70k rich, rulers, aristocracy
    • 2. medium around 25 k middle class
    • 3. inexpensive under 7k poor
  2. According to the Egyptians, where were the names of the body parts put in the canopic jars and what attributes did each have? Page 6
    • liver – IMSET – human head
    • stomach – DUAMUTEF – jackal head
    • lungs – HAPI – apes head
    • intestines – QEBEH-SNEWEF – hawks head
  3. Describe and define pyramid, mastaba, sepulchral, an crypt page 10
    • pyramid ultimate burial site designed for pharaohs as their eternal home
    • mastaba – rectangular shape with three parts chamber, serdab, and pit where mummy in coffin was laid
    • sepulcharal a room in either a pyramid or mastaba where the mummy was placed
    • crypt - is a stone chamber or vault beneath the floor of a church usually used as a chapel or burial vault possibly containing sarcophagi, coffins or relics.
  4. What procedures were followed by the Egyptian embalmers, when performing the three different types of mummifications? Page 6/7
    • Expensive
    • Medium price
    • Inexpensive
  5. Expensive
    • step one removal of brain
    • step two evisceration thru adominal incision organs placed in canopic jars
    • step three covering body in natron for 20 days
    • step four drying process for body laid in sun for 20 days
    • step five bandaging process – after which body returned to family.
  6. Medium
    • step one injection of cedar oil into the abdomen
    • step two body immersion in a natron solution for 20 days step drying process of body in open air for 20 days
    • body is returned to the family Inexpensive any one of these three choices
  7. Innexpensive
    • choice one quick immersion in a natron solution
    • choice two tanning process similar as used for leather
    • choice three molten asphalt substance coated the body
    • body is returned to family
  8. What were the duties of each member of the Egyptian embalming team Lawyer, Anatomist, Pharmacist, Pollinctors? Page 7/8
    • Lawyer or scribe – correctly locate and mark with a piece of charcoal the location for the abdominal incision
    • Antomist or dissector – was the one who actually made the incision
    • Pharmacist or apothecary – was to compound the spices, oils, and spirits used in the embalming process
    • Pollinctors or apothecary servants – main function was to apply oils and spices to the body
  9. Who made up the family of Osiris? Page 4
    • Osiris – compares to greek Dioynsos and god of the underworld and judge of the dead
    • Isis – wife of Osiris
    • Horus – son of Osiris
  10. What were the names and duties of each of the Egyptian gods mentioned in the "Manual"?
    ?
  11. What is another name for mortuary laws and which cultures had them in which order? P17 /23
    • "Sumptuary Laws" Roman – Constantine 300 AD
    • Mortuary laws – England – 14th century
  12. What was the cycle of the Nile River and what role did the Nile and the Sun play in the Egyptian religion? Page 4
    Nile flood and normal – Sun was the center of the universe and source of life – both forces of fertility in nature and thus in religion
  13. What were the Egyptian embalming procedures and the rituals involved?
    • Expensive
    • step one removal of brain – was removed thru nostrils and then packed in linen strips soaked in palm oil
    • step two evisceration thru adominal incision organs placed in canopic jars incision made with a "ehtiopian stone or sacred stone knife organs removed through incision cavity walls bathed and soaked in palm oil – body parts placed in canopic jars except heart and kidneys left in cavity
    • step three covering body in natron for 20 days then washed with water step four drying process for body laid in sun for 20 days
    • step five bandaging process – after which body returned to family. 1200 yards of 3 ¼ inch wide bandaging material used done in a geometric pattern – cloth soaked in wine, oils and various spirits for pleasant odor
  14. According to the Egyptian, what were the names of the canopic jars, who did they represent and what attributes did each have? Pag3 6
    • liver – IMSET – human head
    • stomach – DUAMUTEF – jackal
    • head lungs – HAPI – apes head
    • intestines – QEBEH-SNEWEF – hawks head
  15. What were the duties of each member of the Egyptian embalming team – lawyer, anatomist, pharmacist and pollinctor? Page 8
    Lawyer or scribe – correctly locate and mark with a piece of charcoal the location for the abdominal incision Antomist or dissector – was the one who actually made the incision Pharmacist or apothecary – was to compound the spices, oils, and spirits used in the embalming process Pollinctors or apothecary servants – main function was to apply oils and spices to the body
  16. What were the five steps of the most expensive method of Egyptian embalming? Page 6/7
    • Expensive
    • step one removal of brain step two evisceration thru adominal incision organs placed in canopic jars step three covering body in natron for 20 days step four drying process for body laid in sun for 20 days step five bandaging process – after which body returned to family.
  17. What Egyptian names were the embalming team known by?
    Physician or Priest – supervision of all functions Surgeon or Chief Embalmer – direct supervision of embalming and for rich did it personal Apothecary or Pharmacist – created compounds spices, oils, and spirits Apothecary servants or Pollinctors – did the actual application of spices, oils and spirits Dissector or Anatomist – did the cut and removal of eviscerated organs Designer or Painter – design and construction of burial receptacle Scribe or lawyer – marked where the cut was to be made
  18. According to Egyptian, where was the heart at the end of the embalming process?
    Heart and kidneys were left in the body cavity
  19. What are the durations of each step in the most extensive Egyptian embalming process?
    step one removal of brain step two evisceration thru adominal incision organs placed in canopic jars step three covering body in natron for 20 days step four drying process for body laid in sun for 20 days step five bandaging process – after which body returned to family.
  20. In the various methodologies studied what were the names of the various heavens, if there was such a place for the culture?
    • Hebrew – Sheol paradise
    • Greek Romans – Ellysian Fields
    • Christians – Paradise
    • German/Scandinavian – Valhalla
  21. The periods of history Eolithic, Paleolithic, Neolithic, and ancient refer to which time frames and what occurred within each of them? Page 2
    • Eolithic – before 1.5 millions years ago pre stone age
    • Paleolithic - .5 to 1.5 million years ago stone age of man – use of chipped stone instruments and first recorded attempts of burial
    • Neolithic - 6,000 to 30,000 new stone age of man – development of standards of living – establish community and develop and build homes
    • Ancient – 600 to 6,000 years ago Era of Egyptian embalming 400 million mummies
  22. What were the embalmers of non-egyptian cultures called in the "manual"?
    ?
  23. What are Stelae, Kiones, Trapazae, and Nardia? Page 17
    • Types of tombs used by the Greeks
    • Stelae or shafts
    • Kiones – or columns
    • Trapazae – or square cut tombs
    • Nardia – or temple like structures
  24. What was the "circle of Necessity" and which culture developed the idea? Page 4
    Egyptian – the 3000 year journery of the soul to the sun and back to body – those the need to preserve the body for possession by the returning soul
  25. What ritual practices did the non-egyptian cultures of the Gaunches, Syrian, Ethiopians and Peruvians perform on or for the deceased? Page 10/11
    All practices some form of embalming
  26. What was the significant about the culture of the Gaunches in regard to funeral activities? Page 11
    Gaunches – men embalmed men and women embalmed women
  27. What were sumptuary laws and which cultures had them in which order?
    "Sumptuary Laws" Roman – Constantine 300 AD Mortuary laws – England – 14th century Controlled the cost of funerals and defined burial processes
  28. Where and or what is the necropolis? Page 8
    The walled suburb of the city where all body preparations took place Greatly feared by the general public Only the physician priest was allowed to come and go from the necropolis – all other either were confined in or excluded from
  29. Who was Herodotus? Page 3
    Greek historian know as the father of history – first to describe Egyptian embalming and stated Egyptians first to believe in the immortality of the soul
  30. Who were King Tut and Ramses II?
    Both were pharaohs of Egypt Tut’s tomb was not disturbed by grave robbers until discover in the 1920’s Ramses II was the longest reigning and most powerful of the pharaohs but his tomb was disturbed and his mummy eventual indentified by archeologist
  31. What were the canopic jars, what did they hold and how were they symbolically represented?


    Held the internal organs of the mummy
    • liver – IMSET – human head
    • stomach – DUAMUTEF – jackal
    • head lungs – HAPI – apes head
    • intestines – QEBEH-SNEWEF – hawks head
  32. What were the duties of the painter in Egyptian mummification or burial?page 8
    His task was the design and construction of the burial receptacle
  33. What terms did the non-egyptian cultures use to refer to funeral activities?
  34. What is the difference between pagan, Christian, and Egyptian
  35. Which cultures, if any, used a sunken grave, a trench grave, a chamber grave and or a shallow grave? Page 14
    Hebrew used trench grave, chamber grave, shallow or sunken grave Egyptians also used shallow graves early in their history
  36. What is cremation urn, a type of canopic jar, a pyramid or a type a coffin?\
    Since it contains all that is left of the person – would a type of coffin
  37. What is cremation and who is believe to have used it first among the cultures studied? Page 16
    Greeks were credited with being first culture to use cremation beginning about 1,000 BC Cremation is the burning of the body by fire until it is reduced to ash
  38. What was the size of the bandaging and how much was believed to have been used in wrapping an Egyptian mummy? Page 6
    1200 yards of 3 ¼ inch wide bandaging material

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