Chapter 3 Menstrual Cycle

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BenWood
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263044
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Chapter 3 Menstrual Cycle
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2014-02-20 22:58:11
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Menstrual Cycle
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Chapter 3 Menstrual Cycle
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  1. The __________ is the monthly cycle of follicle development, ovulation, corpus luteum formation, and changes in the endometrium.
    menstrual cycle
  2. The 2 phases of the menstrual cycle in the ovary:
    • - Follicular phase (days 1-14)
    • - Luteal phase (days 14-28)
  3. The three phases of the menstrual cycle in the uterus:
    • - Menstrual phase (days 1-6)
    • - Proliferative phase (days 6-14)
    • - Secretory phase (days 14-28)
  4. The follicular phase in the ovary is coordinated with the __________ and __________ phases of the uterus.
    Menstrual and Proliferative
  5. The luteal phase of the ovary is coordinated with the __________ phase of the uterus.
    Secretory
  6. In the __________ phase of the Ovarian Cycle, the rapid growth of the tertiary follicles under the influence of FSH to form the Graafian follicle. Increasing estrogen levels and the spike in LH and FSH trigger ovulation.
    follicular
  7. __________ marks the end of the __________ phase of the ovarian cycle.
    Ovulation; follicular
  8. The __________ phase coordinates with menses and proliferative phase of the uterus.
    follicular (days 1-14)
  9. In the __________ phase of the Ovarian Cycle, the formation of the corpus luteum and its secretion of estradiol and progesterone to influence the uterus to become thick and spongy and ready to receive an embryo.
    luteal (days 14-28)
  10. Formation of the ________ and its secretion of __________ and __________ to influence the uterus to become thick and spongy and ready to receive an embryo.
    Corpus luteum; estradiol and progesterone
  11. In the __________ phase, low levels of estrogen & progesterone stimulate hypothalamus to release GnRH.
    early follicular
  12. __________ stimulates anterior pituitary to release LH & FSH.
    GnRH
  13. __________ & __________ stimulate the ovary.
    FSH & LH
  14. Hormone Cascade on the Ovary
  15. LH stimulates __________ cells of the follicle to produce androgens (estrogen).
    Theca
  16. FSH stimulates __________ cells of follicles to convert androgens to estrogen.
    Granulosa
  17. Action of LH and FSH in early follicular stage
  18. In the early follicular phase:
    • - Estrogen levels are starting to build
    • - Progesterone remains low
    • - LH and FSH remain steady and at higher levels than estrogen
  19. The early follicular phase of the ovary coordinates with the __________ phase of the uterus.
    Menses
  20. The low levels of __________ & __________ constrict spiral arteries of endometrium and thus it sheds.

    estrogen & progesterone
  21. In the late follicular phase:
    • - Estrogen & FSH induces LH receptors to form on granulosa cells.
    • - LH stimulates granulosa cells to produce progesterone.
  22. In the late follicular phase, estrogen & FSH induces __________ receptors to form on __________ cells.
    LH; granulosa
  23. In the late follicular phase, LH stimulates __________ cells to produce __________.
    granulosa; progesterone
  24. In the late follicular phase:
    • - High levels of estrogen and building levels of progesterone triggers LH surge
    • - FSH surge occurs at the same time
    • - LH & FSH surges trigger completion of Meiosis I, ovulation, and conversion of ruptured follicle to a corpus luteum.
  25. In the late follicular phase, FSH surges trigger:
    • - Completion of Meiosis I
    • - Ovulation
    • - Conversion of ruptured follicle to a corpus luteum
  26. The late follicular phase coordinates with the __________ phase of the uterus.
    proliferative
  27. In the __________ phase, the endometrium is starting to be built up.
    late follicular
  28. Early to late follicular phases
  29. Ovulation (day 14) signals the end of the __________ and the beginning of the __________ phase.
    follicular; luteal
  30. Ovulation
  31. __________ signals the end of the follicular phase and the beginning of the luteal phase.
    Ovulation (day 14)
  32. Ovarian Cycle Overview
  33. In the __________ cycle, monthly changes in the endometrium take place.
    uterine
  34. The uterine cycle is coordinated with the __________ cycle.
    ovarian
  35. The 3 phases of the Uterine Cycle:
    • - Menstrual phase (days 1-6)
    • - Proliferative phase (days 6-14)
    • - Secretory phase (days 14-28)
  36. The __________ and __________ phases of the uterine cycle coordinate with the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle.
    menstrual and proliferative
  37. The __________ phase of the uterine cycle coordinates with the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle.
    secretory
  38. Uterine Cycle
  39. Menstrual Phase Overview:
    • - Low levels of estrogen & progesterone constrict spiral arteries of endometrium.
    • - Endometrium is shed; aided by secretion of prostaglandins (which will cause uterus to contract).
    • - Menstrual discharge contains blood (clots then liquefies), uterine fluids, endometrial debris, some vaginal cells
    • - Coordinates with the early follicular phase of the ovary
  40. In the menstrual phase, estrogen & progesterone __________.
    constrict spiral arteries of endometrium
  41. In the menstrual phase, the shedding of the endometrium is aided by __________, which will cause the __________.
    prostaglandins; uterus to contract
  42. __________ contains blood (clots then liquefies), uterine fluids, endometrial debris, and some vaginal cells.
    Menstrual discharge
  43. The menstrual phase coordinates with the __________.
    early follicular phase of the ovary
  44. A painful, chronic disease that occurs when endometrium of the uterus is found outside the uterus.
    Endometriosis
  45. In the proliferative phase of the uterus (days 6-14), __________ stimulates __________.
    estrogen; thickening of the endometrium
  46. The thickening of the endometrium is stimulated by __________.
    estrogen
  47. Estrogen induces __________ receptors to form in __________ cells.
    progesterone; endometrial
  48. The proliferative phase of the uterus coordinates with __________.
    the late follicular stage of the ovary
  49. In the secretory phase of the uterus (days 14-28), Progesterone stimulates:
    • - Endometrium to double in thickness
    • - Spiral arteries to grow & develop
    • - Endometrial glands to secrete glycoproteins
  50. Progesterone stimulates the endometrium to __________.
    double in thickness
  51. Progesterone stimulates __________ to grow and develop.
    spiral arteries
  52. Progesterone stimulates the ____________ glands to secrete __________.
    endometrial; glycoproteins
  53. The secretory phase of the uterus coordinates with __________.
    the luteal phase of the ovary
  54. __________ is the first menstrual period.
    Menarche
  55. __________ is the abnormal cessation of menstration.
    Amenorrhea
  56. Amenorrhea is due to __________ or __________.
    severe malnutrition or extremely strenuous activity
  57. The period of life (45-55) in which ovulation & menstruation cease is __________.
    menopause
  58. In menopause, GnRH, FSH & LH are all still produced, but __________ are unresponsive.
    receptors in ovary
  59. What are the 2 phases of the Ovarian cycle?

    A) Primordial follicle, primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, Graafian
    B) Follicular and luteal
    C) Menstrual, proliferative, and secretory
    D) Primary oocyte and secondary oocyte 
    E) Menstrual, follicular, and luteal
    follicle, and secondary oocyte
    B) Follicular and luteal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. What phase(s) of the uterine cycle coordinate with the
    follicular phase of the ovary?

    A) Menstrual,
    B) Choices A and B
    C) Proliferative
    D) Choices B and C
    E) Secretory
    B) Choices A and B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. What stimulates FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH
    (luteinizing hormone) to be released from the anterior pituitary?

    A) GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) pulsating out of the hypothalamus
    B) The corpus luteum
    C) Atresia of the follicles
    D) Theca and granulosa cells
    E) High estrogen and progesterone levels
    A) GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) pulsating out of the hypothalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. What stimulates ovulation on day 14 of the cycle?

    A) A spike in FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
    B) A spike in LH (luteinizing hormone)
    C) Corpus luteum
    D) Low levels of estrogen
    E) High levels of progesterone
    B) A spike in LH (luteinizing hormone)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. LH (luteinizing hormone) acts upon ________

    A) Both A and B
    B) Primary oocytes
    C) Endometrium
    D) Granulosa cells
    E) Theca cells
    E) Theca cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Progesterone is released by the

    A) Endometrium
    B) Corpus albicans
    C) Follicle
    D) Corpus luteum
    E) Anterior pituitary
    D) Corpus luteum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. High levels of progesterone stimulate the uterus to.

    A) Stimulate Theca cells to produce estrogen
    B) Double the thickness of the endometrium
    C) Induce progesterone receptors to form in the endometrial lining
    D) Constrict spiral arteries of endometrium + shed the endometrial lining
    E) Release a Graafian follicle and secondary oocyte + 1 polar body
    B) Double the thickness of the endometrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. True or False? LH and FSH spike during the secretory phase
    False

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