Chapter 9

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
263071
Filename:
Chapter 9
Updated:
2014-02-21 21:46:59
Tags:
Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur
Folders:

Description:
Obstetrics and Neonatology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. define

    gamete
    • mature germ cell
    • either sperm (male)
    • or ovum (female)
  2. define

    ovulation
    expulsion of a mature ovum from an ovary
  3. define

    conception, or fertilization
    • beginning of pregnancy, when the sperm enters the ovum
    • fertilization normally occurs in the uterine tubes
  4. define

    zygote
    cell formed by the union of the sperm and the ovum
  5. define

    embryo
    • unborn offspring in the stage of development from implantation of the zygote to the end of the eight week of pregnancy
    • this period is characterized by rapid growth of the embryo
  6. define time line between ovulation and implantation

    **know this well for the test
    • ovulation - a graafian follicle bursts and releases an ovum where it is captured by fimbriae and funneled toward the uterine tube
    • 2 gametes (mature germ cells, sperm/egg) come together - fertilization occurs in the uterine tube
    • this becomes a zygote, which becomes implanted in the uterus after about 1 week
    • then it is an embryo until the end of the 2nd month (8th week) of pregnancy
    • it becomes a fetus at the beginning of the 3rd month (9th week) until birth

    • graafian follicle
    • ovum
    • 2 gametes
    • zygote (for 1 week)
    • embryo ( 8 days - 8 weeks)
    • fetus (week 9-birth)
  7. define

    fetus
    unborn offspring from the beginning of the ninth week of pregnancy until birth
  8. define

    gestation, pregnancy
    development of new individual from conception to birth
  9. define

    gestation period
    • duration of pregnancy
    • normally 38 to 42 weeks
    • which can be divided into three equal periods called trimesters
  10. define

    implantation
    • embedding of the zygote in the uterine lining
    • the process normally begins about 7 days after fertilization and continues for several days
  11. define

    placenta, or afterbirth
    a structure that grows on the wall of the uterus during pregnancy and allows for nourishment of the unborn child
  12. define

    amniotic sac, or amnionic sac

    also called bag of water
    membranous bag that surrounds the fetus before delivery
  13. define

    chorion

    *think outer side of the sac
    outermost layer of the fetal membrane
  14. define

    amnion

    think inner side of the sac
    innermost layer of the fetal membrane
  15. define

    amniotic fluid or amnionic fluid
    fluid within the amniotic sac, which surrounds the fetus
  16. amni/o
    amnion/o
    combining form

    amnion, amniotic fluid
  17. chori/o
    combining form

    chorion
  18. embry/o
    combining form

    • embryo
    • to be full
  19. fet/o
    fet/i

    *Note, both 'i' and 'o' may be used as combining vowels with 'fet/' --- pay attention to correct spelling with these words
    combining form

    • fetus
    • unborn child
  20. gravid/o
    combining form

    pregnancy
  21. lact/o
    combining form

    milk
  22. nat/o
    combining form

    birth
  23. omphal/o
    combining form

    • umbilicus
    • navel
  24. par/o
    part/o
    combining form

    • bear
    • give birth to
    • labor
    • childbirth
  25. puerper/o
    combining form

    childbirth
  26. cephal/o
    combining form

    head
  27. esaphag/o
    combining form

    • esophagus
    • tube leading from the throat to the stomach
  28. pelv/o
    pelv/i

    *Note both 'i' and 'o' may be used as the combining vowel with 'pelv/'  -- pay attention to correct spelling with these words
    • pelvic bone
    • pelvis
  29. prim/i

    **Note, the combining vowel is 'i'
    combining form

    first
  30. pseud/o
    combining form

    false
  31. pylor/o
    combining form

    • pylorus
    • pylori sphincter

    *sphincter muscle between the stomach and small intestine

    • Definitions:
    • 1. The muscular tissue surrounding and controlling the aboral outlet of the stomach.
    • 2. A muscular or myovascular device to open (musculus dilator) and to
    • close (musculus sphincter) an orifice or the lumen of an organ.
  32. terat/o
    combining form

    malformation

    *translated literally as monster; however, in medical terms (relating to obstetrics) refers to malformations or abnormal development
  33. ante-
    pre-
    prefix

    before
  34. micro-
    prefix

    small
  35. multi-
    prefix

    many
  36. nulli-
    prefix

    none
  37. post-
    prefix

    after
  38. -amnios
    suffix

    • amnion
    • amniotic fluid
  39. -cyesis
    suffix

    pregnancy
  40. -e
    noun suffix, no meanind
  41. -is
    noun sufix, no meaning
  42. -um
    noun suffix, no meaning
  43. -us
    noun suffix, no meaning
  44. -partum
    suffix

    • childbirth
    • labor
  45. -rrhexis
    suffix

    rupture
  46. -tocia
    suffix

    • birth
    • labor
  47. name and define all four '-rrh' suffixes
    • -rrhea - flow or discharge
    • -rrhagia - rapid flow of blood

    • -rrhexis - rupture
    • -rrhaphy - suturing, repair
  48. amnion/itis
    inflammation of the amnion
  49. chori/o/amnion/itis
    inflammation of the chorion and amnion
  50. chori/o/carcin/oma
    cancerous tumor of the chorion
  51. dys/tocia

    dys- + -tocia
    prefix + suffix
    difficult labor
  52. hyster/o/rrhexis
    rupture of the uterus
  53. olio/o/hydr/amnios
    • scanty amnion water
    • less than the normal amount of amniotic fluid (500 mL. or less)
  54. poly/hydr/amnios

    also called hydramnios
    • much amnion water
    • more than the normal amount of amniotic fluid
    • 2000 mL or more
  55. abortion
    • termination of pregnancy by expulsion from the uterus of an embryo before fetal viability
    • usually before20 weeks of gestation
  56. abruptio placentae
    premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
  57. eclampsia
    • severe complication and progression of preeclampsia characterized by convulsion
    • Eclampsia is a potentially life-threatening disorder
  58. ectopic pregnancy
    • pregnancy occurring outside the uterus
    • commonly in the uterine tubes
  59. placenta previa
    • abnormally low implantation of the placenta on the uterine wall completely or partially covering the cervix
    • dilation of the cervix can cause separation of the placenta from the uterine wall, resulting in bleeding
    • with severe hemorrhage, a cesarean section may be necessary to save the mother's life
  60. preeclampsia
    • abnormal condition encountered during pregnancy or shortly after delivery
    • characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and proteinuria, but with no convulsions
    • the cause is unknown, if not successfully treated, the condition can progress to eclampsia
    • eclampsia is the third most common cause of maternal deaths in the US after hemorrhage and infection
  61. micr/o/cephal/us
    fetus with a very small head
  62. omphal/itis
    inflammation of the umbilicus
  63. omphal/o/cele
    • hernia at the umbilicus
    • a part of the intestine protrudes through the abdominal wall at birth
  64. pylor/ic   stenosis
    • narrowing pertaining to the pyloric sphincter
    • congenital pyloric stenosis occurs in 1 of every 200 newborns
  65. trache/o/esophag/eal    fistula
    • abnormal passageway pertaining to the esophagus and the trachea
    • (between the esophagus and trachea)
  66. cleft lip and palate
    • congenital split of the  lip and roof of the mouth
    • (cleft indicates a fissure)
  67. Down syndrome

    formerly called mongolism
    genetic condition characterized by varying degrees of mental retardation and multiple defects
  68. erythroblastosis fetalis
    • condition of the newborn characterized by hemolysis* of the erythrocytes (RBC)
    • the condition is usually caused by incompatibility of the infant's and mother's blood, occurring when the mother's blood is Rh negative and the infant's blood is Rh positive

    • * Definitions hemolysis:
    • 1. Alteration, dissolution, or destruction of red blood cells in such a manner that hemoglobin is liberated into the medium in which the cells are suspended, by specific complement-fixing antibodies, toxins, various chemical agents, tonicity, alteration of temperature.
  69. esophageal atresia
    • congenital absence of part of the esophagus
    • food cannot pass from the baby's mouth to the stomach
  70. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    • a condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy
    • various birth defects may present, including central nervous system dysfunction and malformations of the skull and face
  71. gastroschisis
    • a congenital fissure of the abdominal wall not at the umbilicus
    • enterocele, protrusion of the intestine, us usually present
  72. respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)

    formerly called hyaline membrane disease
    • a respiratory complication in the newborn, especially in premature infants
    • in preemies, RDS is caused by normal immaturity of the respiratory system resulting in compromised respiration
  73. spina bifida
    • contenital defect in the vertebral column caused by the failure of the vertebral arch to close
    • if the meninges protrude through the opening the condition is called mening/o/cele
    • protrusion of both the meninges and spinal cord is called mening/o/myel/o/cele
  74. amni/o/tomy
    • incision into the amnion
    • rupture of the fetal membrane to induce labor; a special hook is generally used to make the incision
  75. episi/o/tomy

    also called perine/o/tomy
    • incision of the vulva (perineum)
    • sometimes reformed during delivery
  76. pelv/ic    son/o/graphy

    also called pelvic ultrasonography
    pelvic ultrasound
    obstetric ultrasonography
    • pertaining to the pelvis, process of recording sound
    • pelvic ultrasound is used extensively to evaluate the fetus and pregnancy
  77. amni/o/centesis
    • surgical puncture to aspirate amniotic fluid
    • the needle is inserted through the abdominal and uterine walls, using ultrasound to guide the needle
    • the fluid is used for the assessment of fetal health and maturity to aid in diagnosing fetal abnormalities
  78. amni/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination of the amniotic fluid (and the fetus)
  79. amni/o/scopy
    visual examination of amniotic fluid (and the fetus)
  80. amni/o/chori/al
    pertaining to the amnion and chorion
  81. amni/o/rrhea
    discharge (escape) of amniotic fluid
  82. amni/o/rrhexis
    rupture of the amnion
  83. ante/partum
    before childbirth (reference to the mother)
  84. embry/o/genic
    producing an embryo
  85. embry/oid
    resembling an embryo
  86. fet/al
    pertaining to the fetus
  87. gravid/a
    • pregnant (woman)
    • a woman who is or has been pregnant, regardless of pregnancy outcome
  88. gravid/o/puerper/al
    • pertaining to pregnancy and childirth
    • from delivery until reproductive organs return to normal
  89. intra/partum
    within (during) labor and childbirth
  90. lact/ic
    pertaining to milk
  91. lact/o/genic
    producing milk (by stimulation)
  92. lact/o/rrhea
    (spontaneous) discharge of milk
  93. multi/gravid/a
    • many pregnancies
    • a woman who has been pregnant two or more times
  94. multi/par/a  (multip)
    • many births
    • a woman who has given birth to two or more viable offspring
  95. nat/al
    pertaining to birth
  96. ne/o/nat/e

    synonymous with newborn (NB)
    • new birth
    • an infant from birth to 4 weeks of age
  97. ne/o/nat/o/logist
    physician who studies and treats disorders of the newborn
  98. ne/o/nat/o/logy
    • study of the newborn
    • branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis and treatment of disorders in newborns
  99. nulli/gravid/a
    • no pregnancies
    • a woman who has never been pregnant
  100. nulli/par/a
    • no births
    • a woman who has not given birth to a viable offspring

    *it is possible to be multigravida (many pregnancies) and nullipara at the same time
  101. par/a
    • birth
    • a woman who has given birth to an offspring, viable or stillborn
  102. post/nat/al
    • pertaining to after birh
    • reference to the newborn
  103. post/part/um
    • after childbirth
    • reference to the mother
  104. pre/nat/al
    • pertaining to before birth
    • reference to the newborn
  105. Which words are similar but specifically reference either the mother or the baby when describing before or after birth?
    • Mother                     Baby
    • antepartum                prenatal
    •                                  neonate
    • postpartum                postnatal

    *a gnat is a little one, and partum is like mum
  106. prim/i/gravid/a
    • first pregnancy
    • a woman in her first pregnancy
  107. prim/i/par/a   (primip)
    • first birth
    • a woman who has given birth to an offspring after the point of viability - 20 weeks
  108. pseud/o/cyesis
    • false pregnancy
    • a woman who believes she is pregnant
    • this may be a psychological condition or related to underlying pathology, such as a uterine tumor
  109. puerper/a
    • childbirth
    • a woman who has just given birth
  110. puerper/al
    pertaining to  (immediately after) childbirth
  111. terat/o/gen
    • any agent producing malformations (in the developing embryo
    • teratogens include chemical agents such as drugs, alcohol, viruses, x-rays, and environmental factors
  112. terat/o/genic
    producing malformations (in the developing embryo)
  113. terat/o/logy
    • study of malformations
    • usually in regard to malformations caused by teratogens on the developing embryo
  114. Compare terms with gravid/o and par/o
    •             Pregnant          Birth
    •     No: nulligravida       nullipara
    •   first: primigravida      primipara
    • many: multigravida      multipara

    *its grave if your pregnant, and a party when your born
  115. breech presentation
    birth position in which the buttocks, feet or knees emerge first
  116. cephalic presentation
    • birth position in which any part of the head emerges first
    • it i the most common presentation
  117. cesarean section
    (CS)
    C-section

    may also be spelled caesarean
    the birth of a baby through an incision in the mother's abdomen and uterus
  118. colostrum
    thin, milky fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and during the first days after birth before lactation begins
  119. congenital anomaly
    • abnormality present at birth
    • often discovered before birth by ultrasonography and/or amniocentesis
  120. in vitro fertilization (IVF)
    • a method of fertilizing human ova outside the body and placing the zygote into the uterus
    • used when infertility is present
  121. lactation
    the secretion of milk
  122. lochia
    vaginal discharge after childbirth
  123. meconium
    first stool of the newborn (greenish-black)
  124. midwife
    an individual who practices midwifery
  125. midwifery
    the practice of assisting in childbirth
  126. obstetrician
    physician who specializes in obstetrics
  127. obstetrics (OB)
    medical specialty dealing with pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium

    • puerperium Definitions:
    • 1. Period from the termination of labor to complete involution of the uterus, usually defined as 42 days.
  128. parturition
    act of giving birth
  129. premature infant

    also called preterm infant
    infant born before completing 37 weeks of gestation
  130. puerperium
    • period from delivery until the reproductive organs return to normal
    • approximately 6 weeks
  131. quickening
    • the first feeling of movement of the fetus in utero by the pregnant woman
    • it usually occurs between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation
  132. stillborn
    born dead
  133. What is the difference between penis and testicles?
    testicles are the primary male sex organ

    penis is the male organ of urination and copulation
  134. where does spermatogenesis occur?
    in the seminiferous tubules
  135. what is the coiled duct where sperm is stored, matures and is in transit?

    hint: it sits atop each of the testes
    epididymis
  136. what is the coiled duct where sperm is stored, matures and is in transit?

    hint: it sits atop each of the testes
     
  137. explain the difference between the seminiferous tubules and the epididymis
    • seminiferous tubules         epididymis
    • 900 coiled tubes                 coiled duct
    • within the testes                 atop the testes
    • spermatogenesis occurs     storage, transit,
    •                                          and maturation
    •                                          of sperm
    •                                          continuous with
    •                                          vas deferens
  138. define glomerulus

    (pl: glomeruli)
    • cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron
    • the process of filtering the blood, thereby forming urine, begins here
  139. ***Test Dictation***

    incision of a vulva
    • episiotomy
    • episi/o/tomy
  140. ***Test Dictation***

    difficult, painful intercourse
    dysparunia

    *remember if sex is difficult or painful you dyspair from the union
  141. ***Test Dictation***

    visual examination of the kidney
    nephroscopy

    nephr/o/scopy
  142. ***Test Dictation***

    persistent abnormal erection of penis accompanied by pain and tenderness
    priapism
  143. ***Test Question***

    urinary meatus
    opening through which the urine passes to the outside
  144. ***Test Question***

    polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

    *remember, she gave us the abbreviation in class, not in book
    condition of which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
  145. ***Test Question***

    retrograde urogram
    • radiographic image of the urinary tract
    • contrast medium is instilled through urethral catheters by a cystoscope
    • retrograde means to move in a direction opposite from normal
  146. ***Test Question***

    seminiferous tubules
    • 900 coiled tubes                
    • within the testes                
    • spermatogenesis occurs
  147. ***Test Question***

    orchiepididymitis
    orchi/epididym/itis
    inflammation of the testis and epididymis
  148. ***Test Question***

    digital rectal exam  (DRE)
    • a physical examination
    • in which the physical inserts a finger into the rectum
    • and feels for the size and shape of the prostate gland
    • used to screen for BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) and cancer of the prostate
    • BPH usually presents as a uniform, nontender enlargement
    • whereas cancer usually presents as a stony hard nodule
  149. ***Test Question***

    uterine tube

    *remember, it is uterine tube, not fallopian tube on the test!
    • pair of 5-inch (12-13 cm) tubes attached (only one end of each tube) to the uterus
    • that provide a passageway for the ovum to move from the ovary to the uterus
    • the fimbria (pl: fimbriae) are at the unattached or free end of the tube and help draw the ovum into the uterine tube
  150. ***Test Question***

    fibroid tumor
    myoma of the uterus
    leiomyoma
    benign fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle
  151. ***Test Question***

    pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    • inflammation of the female pelvic organs
    • that can be caused by mny different pathogens
    • if untreated, the infection may spread upward from the vagina, involving the uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, and other pelvic organs
    • an ascending infection may result in infertility and, in acute cases, fatal septicemia
  152. ***Test Question***

    ectopic pregnancy
    • pregnancy occurring outside the uterus
    • commonly in the uterine tubes
  153. ***Test Question***

    lochia
    • vaginal discharge after childbirth
    • afterbirth
  154. ***Test Question***

    pseudocyesis

    pseud/o/cyesis
    • false pregnancy
    • a woman who believes she is pregnant
    • this may be a psychological condition
    • or related to underlying pathology, such as a uterine tumor
  155. define time line between ovulation and implantation

    **know this well for the test
    • ovulation - a graafian follicle bursts and releases an ovum where it is captured by fimbriae and funneled toward the uterine tube
    • 2 gametes (mature germ cells, sperm/egg) come together - fertilization occurs in the uterine tube
    • this becomes a zygote, which becomes implanted in the uterus after about 1 week
    • then it is an embryo until the end of the 2nd month (8th week) of pregnancy
    • it becomes a fetus at the beginning of the 3rd month (9th week) until birth

    • graafian follicle
    • ovum
    • 2 gametes
    • zygote (for 1 week)
    • embryo ( 8 days - 8 weeks)
    • fetus (week 9-birth)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview