anatomy

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Author:
landonmathis
ID:
263086
Filename:
anatomy
Updated:
2014-02-20 22:58:58
Tags:
exam
Folders:
chapters 1,4,5,6
Description:
overview of anatomy, tissues, integumentary, bone and skeletal tissues
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  1. Define anatomy and physiology, and describe the subdivisions of anatomy.
    • anatomy- structure of the body
    • subs- gross=using the naked eye
    • mircosopic(histology)=only can be seen through microscope

    physiology- study of body functions
  2. Use the meaning of root words to aid in understanding anatomical terminology
  3. Identify the levels of increasing complexity in the human body, from chemical to organismal.
    chemical, cellular, tissue,organ,organ system,organism level
  4. List the organ systems of the body, naming major structures and describing main functions.
    Integumentary-protect the body,kill bacteria, called the body with sweat glands, and keep the body warm wet hair.

    Skeletal- provide support to the body and protect organs. Bones also manufacture red blood cells which carry oxygen throughout the body.

    Muscular-basic function is to help the body move.

    Nervous-control the body.

    Endocrine-produce hormones which control many body functions.

    Cardiovascular-

    Lymphatic-supports the immune system and drains excess fluid from the body.

    Immune-protect the body from foreign invaders.

    Respiratory-supply oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide and other wastes.

    Digestive-breaks down food into a form that can be used by the body

    circulatory- move needed substances around the body and collect wastes.

    excretory-regulates fluid and salt balance in the body.

    reproductive- allow an organism to make more of its own kind.
  5. Describe the body in anatomical position.
    • A person stands erect
    • Feet together 
    • Eyes forward  
    • Palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away
    • from the body
  6. Use anatomical terminology to describe body directions, regions and planes
    • superior/inferior-above and below
    • anterior/posterior-front and back
    • medial/lateral- toward midline, away midline
    • dorsal/ventral-backside and bellyside
    • proximal/distal-nearer end and farther end
    • superficial/deep- toward body surface, away

    1. Locate the major body cavities and their subdivisions.


    1. Name the 9 regions and 4 quadrants of the abdomen, and name the visceral organs associated with these regions.

  7. 1.      
    List several functional and structural characteristics
    of epithelial tissue.
  8. 1.      
    Classify the different epithelia of the body
    based on the number of cell layers and the shape of the cells
  9. 1.      
    Define exocrine and endocrine glands
  10. 1.      
    Explain how multicellular exocrine glands are
    classified
  11. 1.       Describe the features that are common to all connective tissues
  12. 1.       Identify the four main classes of connective tissue.
  13. 1.       Differentiate the different types of connective tissues in reference to
    the types of cells located within the tissue, the structure and composition of
    the extracellular matrix, and the main function of each.
  14. Discuss the structure and function of mucous, serous, and cutaneous
    membranes
  15. 1.      
    Briefly describe the three types of muscle
    tissue
  16. 1.      
    Distinguish the cell types found in nervous
    tissue
  17. 1.      
    Name the tissue types that compose the epidermis
    and the dermis
  18. 1.      
    Name the layers of the epidermis and the dermis,
    and describe the structure and functions of each layer
  19. Describe
    the structure and function of the hypodermis
  20. 1.      
    Describe the factors that contribute to skin
    color
  21. 1.      
    Describe the structure of nails
  22. 1.      
    List the parts of a hair and a hair follicle,
    and explain the function of each part.
  23. Compare
    the structure and location of oil and sweat glands
  24. 1.      
    Compare eccrine and apocrine sweat glands
  25. Describe the layers involved in and the
    symptoms of first-, second-, and third-degree burns, and explain why
    serious burns are life-threatening.
  26. Identify the cell type involved, the
    characteristic appearance, and the degree of malignancy in the three types
    of skin cancer
  27. 1.      
    Locate the major cartilaginous structures of
    the adult human body, and explain the functional properties of cartilage
    tissue.
  28. Compare the
    structure, functions, and locations of the three kinds of cartilage tissue
  29. 1.      
    Explain how cartilage grows.
  30. 1.      
    Describe the functions of the bony skeleton
    and of bone tissue.
  31. 1.      
    Describe the structural components of bone
    tissue and the functions of its organic and inorganic parts.
  32. 1.      
    Differentiate the cells found in bone tissue
    and their functions
  33. 1.      
    Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long
    bone and a typical flat bone.
  34. Explain how bones
    withstand tension and compression
  35. 1.      
    Describe the types of markings found on bones.
  36. Compare and contrast the two types of
    bone formation: intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
  37. Describe how endochondral bones grow at
    their epiphyseal plates.
  38. Discuss how bone tissue is remodeled
    within the skeleton.
  39. Explain the steps in the healing of bone
    fractures.

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