pharm_exam 2

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  1. which 2 types of thyroid hormone do the follicular cells secrete:
    T4 and T3
  2. how does thyroid hormone work in virtually all cells:

    what is the result of this:
    • stimulating glucose oxidation
    • result: control the rate of energy production
    • body temp increases with increased metabolic rate
  3. what causes decrereased TRH production and in turn decreases TSH, and further decreasing T4 and T3:
    increased tyhroxine levels

    the opposite occurs if TH production is insufficient
  4. the result from either a poorly fxning thyroid gland or low secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland is called:
  5. lab results for hypothyroidism will usually revel:
    elevated TSH with diminished T4 and T3
  6. a synthetic form of T4 that is the drug of choice for low thyroid fxn (hypothyrodism):
    levothyroxine (levothroid, synthroid)

    • usually there is little sx of improvement until the pt. has been on TH >30 days
    • dose changes are common in the 1st few months
  7. How can THR (hormone replacement) cause or worsen heart failure:
    because it increaes the metabolic rate, TRH cna significantly increase the hearts workload and if there is undiagnoised heart disease it can cause or worsen CHF
  8. what is the pregnancy categorty for levothryoxine:
    category A
  9. how should thryoid drugs be administered:
    • taken on an empty stomach
    • same time every day (usually in the morning)
    • full glass of water
  10. what are the adverse effects of thyroid hormone (TH, Levothyroxine):
    • palpitations
    • dysrhythmias
    • anxiety
    • insomnia
    • weight loss
    • heat intolerance
  11. excess throid hormone production is called:

    what are the symptoms of this:

    • symptoms
    • increased body metabolism
    • tachycardia
    • weight loss
    • elevated body temp
    • anxiety
  12. an autoimmue disease in which the body develops anitbodies against its own thryoid gland, act like TSH and stimulate the thryoid to produce more throid hormone is called:
    graves disease
  13. a profound increase in TH, called a tyroid strom (thyroid crisis), needs immediate attention and is usually treated with:
    sodium iodide IV and propanolol to block the adrenergic systems
  14. what is the MOA for thioamides (drugs to treat hyperthyroidism):
    • decreases iodine binding to the thyroid hormone thus decreasing thyroid hormone produciton
    • alos prevents the conversion of T4 (inactive TH) to T3 (active) in the target tissue
  15. what are the adverse effects of thioamides (to treat hyperthryoidism)
    • symptoms of hypthyroidism
    • rash
    • transient leukopenia (decreased white blood cell)
    • agranulocytosis (failure of bone marrow to make white blood cells)
  16. what is the pregnancy class for thioamides (treat hyperthyroidism)
    category D
  17. what is the MOA for radioactive iodide (I-131):
    • I-131 accumulates in the thyroid gland where it destroys follicular cells
    • goal: destroy just enough of the thyroid gland gland so that levels of thyroid fxn return to normal
  18. pts with radioactive iodide are radioactive for 1 week and should avoid:
    being around others, especially kids and pregnant women
  19. what lab tests are used to monitor the effectiveness of thyroid hormone replacement:
    • Serum TSH levels- to determine whether the pt is rcv'ing sufficient levothryoxine
    • High levels of TSH indicate dose of T4 needs too be increased
  20. anti-thryoid meds (the thioamides)..

  21. anti-thryoid meds (the thioamides)..

  22. thyroid replacement hromone...

    Levothroid, Synthroid:
  23. thyroid replacement hormone..

    cytomel, triostat
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pharm_exam 2
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