1: A person, place, or thing, (objects, concepts, ideas, or events).
Person Place Thing
ballplayer stadium glove
child school education
conductor theater performance
manager company excellence
2: Proper Nouns
2: Proper nouns are capitalized and name specific persons, places, or things.
3: Common Nouns
3: Common Nouns identify general categories and are not capitalized, even when used with proper nouns (IBM machines, Minolta cameras).
4: Collective Nouns
4: Collective nouns refer to a group of people, animals, objects, or other units.
5: Functions of Nouns
5: Nouns can be used as the subject, direct object, and indirect object of a verb; as the object of a preposition; and as an adverb or adjective.
Subject: The mail carrier always rings twice.
Violets are spring flowers. (tells who or what does or is something)
Direct object: I finally sold my car. (tells what is sold)
Indirect object: Harold fed the cat another olive. (tells to whom he fed the olive)
Object of preposition: She gave directions over the phone. (tells what is the object of the preposition over)
Adverb: The train leaves today. (tells when)
Adjective: The office building faces the mall. (tells what kind, which one)
Possession: The parrot's cage needs cleaning. My father's brother is my uncle. (shows ownership or relationship)
6: Plural Nouns
6: Most nouns can be made plural by adding s to the singular form. For all other plural forms is done with es and ies.
Nouns Ending in s, ss, z, sh, ch, and x,add es to form the plural.
For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i and add es.Singular Plural
7: Possessive Nouns
7: Possessive nouns are used to indicate ownership or relationship.
8: Pronouns take the place of one or more nouns or a group of words in a sentence. Like nouns, they can be used to refer to a person, place, or thing.
The word or phrase that the pronoun replaces is called the antecedent of the pronoun.
Pronouns are classified as personal, intensive/reflexive, indefinite, possessive, relative, interrogative, and demonstrative.
10: Personal Pronouns
10: Personal pronouns can be used in a variety of ways. They serve as the subject of a sentence, as the object of a verb or preposition, to show possession, to provide emphasis (called intensive pronouns), or to refer action back to the subject (called reflexive pronouns).
11: Case of Personal Pronouns
11: Personal pronouns have three cases: nominative (subject), possessive, and objective (object of verb or preposition).
Person Case Singular Plural
nominative I We
possessive my/mine our/ours
objective me us
intensive/reflexive myself ourselves
nominative you you
possessive your/yours your/yours
objective you you
intensive/reflexive yourself yourselves
nominative he/she/it they
possessive his/her, hers/its their/theirs
objective him/her/it them
I/R himself/herself/itself themselves
12: Indefinite Pronouns
12: Indefinite pronouns refer to unspecified people or things. Many indefinite pronouns express some idea of quantity: all, several, few, none. Following is a list of the most commonly used indefinite pronouns.
all each most other
another either neither several
any everybody nobody some
anybody everyone none somebody
anyone few no one someone
both many one such
13: Possessive Pronouns
13: Possessive pronouns, unlike possessive nouns, never take an apostrophe. The possessive forms are my/mine, our/ours, your/yours, his/hers, hers/its, their/theirs. The pronoun who also has a possessive form, whose.