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1: A person, place, or thing, (objects, concepts, ideas, or events).
- Person Place Thing
- ballplayer stadium glove
- child school education
- conductor theater performance
- manager company excellence
2: Proper Nouns
2: Proper nouns are capitalized and name specific persons, places, or things.
- Texas A&M
- Julia Roberts
- U.S.S. Enterprise
3: Common Nouns
3: Common Nouns identify general categories and are not capitalized, even when used with proper nouns (IBM machines, Minolta cameras).
4: Collective Nouns
4: Collective nouns refer to a group of people, animals, objects, or other units.
- movie cast
5: Functions of Nouns
5: Nouns can be used as the subject, direct object, and indirect object of a verb; as the object of a preposition; and as an adverb or adjective.
- Subject: The mail carrier always rings twice.
- Violets are spring flowers. (tells who or what does or is something)
- Direct object: I finally sold my car. (tells what is sold)
- Indirect object: Harold fed the cat another olive. (tells to whom he fed the olive)
- Object of preposition: She gave directions over the phone. (tells what is the object of the preposition over)
- Adverb: The train leaves today. (tells when)
- Adjective: The office building faces the mall. (tells what kind, which one)
- Possession: The parrot's cage needs cleaning. My father's brother is my uncle. (shows ownership or relationship)
6: Plural Nouns
- 6: Most nouns can be made plural by adding s to the singular form. For all other plural forms is done with es and ies.
- Singular Plural
- highway highways
- bagel bagels
- base bases
- Nouns Ending in s, ss, z, sh, ch, and x, add es to form the plural.
- Singular Plural
- address addresses
- box boxes
- buzz buzzes
- fez fezes
- gas gases
- kiss kisses
- watch watches
- For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i and add es.Singular Plural
- category categories
- currency currencies
- secretary secretaries
- territory territories
7: Possessive Nouns
7: Possessive nouns are used to indicate ownership or relationship.
- 8: Pronouns take the place of one or more nouns or a group of words in a sentence. Like nouns, they can be used to refer to a person, place, or thing.
- The word or phrase that the pronoun replaces is called the antecedent of the pronoun.
- Pronouns are classified as personal, intensive/reflexive, indefinite, possessive, relative, interrogative, and demonstrative.
10: Personal Pronouns
10: Personal pronouns can be used in a variety of ways. They serve as the subject of a sentence, as the object of a verb or preposition, to show possession, to provide emphasis (called intensive pronouns), or to refer action back to the subject (called reflexive pronouns).
11: Case of Personal Pronouns
11: Personal pronouns have three cases: nominative (subject), possessive, and objective (object of verb or preposition).
- Person Case Singular Plural
- nominative I We
- possessive my/mine our/ours
- objective me us
- intensive/reflexive myself ourselves
- nominative you you
- possessive your/yours your/yours
- objective you you
- intensive/reflexive yourself yourselves
- nominative he/she/it they
- possessive his/her, hers/its their/theirs
- objective him/her/it them
- I/R himself/herself/itself themselves
12: Indefinite Pronouns
- 12: Indefinite pronouns refer to unspecified people or things. Many indefinite pronouns express some idea of quantity: all, several, few, none. Following is a list of the most commonly used indefinite pronouns.
- all each most other
- another either neither several
- any everybody nobody some
- anybody everyone none somebody
- anyone few no one someone
- both many one such
13: Possessive Pronouns
13: Possessive pronouns, unlike possessive nouns, never take an apostrophe. The possessive forms are my/mine, our/ours, your/yours, his/hers, hers/its, their/theirs. The pronoun who also has a possessive form, whose.