English Grammar

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English Grammar
2014-02-21 03:25:47
English Grammar

Parts of Speech
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  1. 1: Noun
    1: A person, place, or thing, (objects, concepts, ideas, or events).

    • Person               Place               Thing
    • ballplayer           stadium           glove
    • child                  school              education
    • conductor           theater            performance
    • manager            company          excellence
  2. 2: Proper Nouns
    2: Proper nouns are capitalized and name specific persons, places, or things.

    • Proper
    • Texas A&M
    • Google
    • Julia Roberts
    • Nemo
    • U.S.S. Enterprise
  3. 3: Common Nouns
    3: Common Nouns identify general categories and are not capitalized, even when used with proper nouns (IBM machines, Minolta cameras).

    • Common
    • university
    • company
    • woman
    • fish
    • ship
  4. 4: Collective Nouns
    4: Collective nouns refer to a group of people, animals, objects, or other units.

    • Collective
    • trustees
    • management
    • movie cast
    • school
    • fleet
  5. 5: Functions of Nouns
    5: Nouns can be used as the subject, direct object, and indirect object of a verb; as the object of a preposition; and as an adverb or adjective.

    • Subject: The mail carrier always rings twice.
    • Violets are spring flowers. (tells who or what does or is something)
    • Direct object: I finally sold my car. (tells what is sold)
    • Indirect object: Harold fed the cat another olive. (tells to whom he fed the olive)
    • Object of preposition: She gave directions over the phone. (tells what is the object of the preposition over)
    • Adverb: The train leaves today. (tells when)
    • Adjective: The office building faces the mall. (tells what kind, which one)
    • Possession: The parrot's cage needs cleaning. My father's brother is my uncle. (shows ownership or relationship)
  6. 6: Plural Nouns
    • 6: Most nouns can be made plural by adding s to the singular form. For all other plural forms is done with es and ies.
    • Singular              Plural
    • highway              highways
    • bagel                  bagels
    • base                   bases
    • Nouns Ending in s, ss, z, sh, ch, and x, add es to form the plural.

    • Singular              Plural
    • address               addresses
    • box                     boxes
    • buzz                   buzzes
    • fez                     fezes
    • gas                    gases
    • kiss                    kisses
    • watch                 watches
    • For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i and add es.
    • Singular             Plural
    • category            categories
    • currency            currencies
    • secretary           secretaries
    • territory             territories
  7. 7: Possessive Nouns
    7: Possessive nouns are used to indicate ownership or relationship.
  8. 8: Pronouns
    and class
    • 8: Pronouns take the place of one or more nouns or a group of words in a sentence. Like nouns, they can be used to refer to a person, place, or thing.
    • The word or phrase that the pronoun replaces is called the antecedent of the pronoun.
    • Pronouns are classified as personal, intensive/reflexive, indefinite, possessive, relative, interrogative, and demonstrative.
  9. 9: Determiners
  10. 10: Personal Pronouns
    10: Personal pronouns can be used in a variety of ways. They serve as the subject of a sentence, as the object of a verb or preposition, to show possession, to provide emphasis (called intensive pronouns), or to refer action back to the subject (called reflexive pronouns).
  11. 11: Case of Personal Pronouns
    11: Personal pronouns have three cases: nominative (subject), possessive, and objective (object of verb or preposition).

    • Person Case                    Singular     Plural
    • First    
    •      nominative                  I              We
    •      possessive             my/mine     our/ours
    •      objective                  me              us
    •      intensive/reflexive   myself     ourselves
    • Second      
    •      nominative              you            you
    •      possessive         your/yours   your/yours
    •      objective                 you            you
    •      intensive/reflexive  yourself    yourselves
    • Third
    • nominative       he/she/it                they
    • possessive    his/her, hers/its    their/theirs
    • objective            him/her/it           them
    •     I/R        himself/herself/itself    themselves
  12. 12: Indefinite Pronouns
    • 12: Indefinite pronouns refer to unspecified people or things. Many indefinite pronouns express some idea of quantity: all, several, few, none. Following is a list of the most commonly used indefinite pronouns.
    • all            each        most        other
    • another    either       neither     several
    • any       everybody   nobody     some
    • anybody   everyone   none      somebody
    • anyone      few         no one     someone
    • both         many        one         such
  13. 13: Possessive Pronouns
    13: Possessive pronouns, unlike possessive nouns, never take an apostrophe. The possessive forms are my/mine, our/ours, your/yours, his/hers, hers/its, their/theirs. The pronoun who also has a possessive form, whose.
  14. 14: Nouns
  15. 15: Pronouns
  16. 16: Phrases
  17. 17: Plurals
  18. 18: Possessives
  19. 19: Prepositions
  20. 20: Verbs