Understanding Local Area Networking Lesson 1

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Understanding Local Area Networking Lesson 1
2014-02-22 06:02:55

Understanding Local Area Networking
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  1. are used by just about every organization, and today, manyhomes have them as well.
    Local area networks (LANs)
  2. is two or more computers that exchange data.
  3. is a group of these computers that are confined to a small geographic area,usually one building.
    local area network (LAN)
  4. Setting up a LAN requires
    • computers with network adapters,
    • central connecting devices to connect those computers together,
    • and a numbering scheme (suchas IP addresses) 
    • Set-up might also includeservers,
    • some type of protective device (such as a firewall), and
    • connections to perimeternetworks that are adjacent to the LAN.
  5. requires computers with network adapters, central connectingdevices, and some type of medium to tie it all together, be it cabled or wireless connections.
  6. real reasons that organizations need networks?
    • • Sharing: Networks permit the sharing of files, databases, and media.
    • • Communication: Networks are critical for email, instant messaging, and faxing capabilities.
    • • Organization: Networks centralize data and make it more accessible, which increases theefficiency and speed with which this information can be accessed.
    • • Money: A network should ultimately save a company money, often by aiding in thebudgeting process and/or increasing productivity.
  7. is any information that helps describe,define, and otherwise explain how computers are connected in a physical and logical way.
    Network documentation
  8. is a common tool used for network documentation
    Microsoft Visio
  9. This is the most basicof central connecting devices (sometimes referred to as CCDs);
  10. networked computers, known as
  11. means that the data is sentto every host on the network.
  12. is used to centralize data and share it (or serve it) withother computers on the network.
    A server
  13. usually acts as a client on the network, most likely getting its information from the server. A PC can also store information locally.
  14. As another type of client computer, a Mac canstore information locally or get it from the server.
    A Mac (Macintosh) computer
  15. also known as a network interface card or NIC, is the device that enablesyou to send and receive data to and from your computer.
    network adapter,
  16. RJ45 port is also known as
  17. means that the network card cansend and receive data simultaneously.
    Full duplex
  18. which means that the network adapter will send and receive data but not at the same time.
    half duplex,
  19. connection can transceive(transmit and receive) twice as much information per second as a half duplex connection.
    a full duplex
  20. means the transfer of one bit at a time
    Serial data transfer
  21. is a set of rules that governthe transmission of data between network adapters and various central connecting devices.
  22. otherwise known as bit rate
    data transfer rate
  23. is the cornerstone of networking because it defines the computer or host youare working on.
    IP address
  24. is a group of four numbers that define what IP network the computer is a member of.
    subnet mask
  25. acts as the central connecting device for the network.
    wireless access point (WAP)
  26. is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were connected together in a normal fashion on one switch, regardless of their physical location.
    virtual LAN
  27. (also known as a demilitarized zone or DMZ) is a small network that is set up separately from a company’s private LAN and the Internet
    perimeter network
  28. defines the physical connections of hosts in a computer network.
    network topology
  29. several types of physical topologies
    bus, ring, star, mesh, and tree.
  30. By far, the most common topology is the
    star topology.
  31. this is where the “bus” part of a star-bus topology comes in.
    medium dependent interface(MDI) port
  32. is far and away the most common type of LAN standard used by today’s organizations.
  33. is a group of networking technologies that define how information is sent and received between network adapters, hubs, switches, and other devices.
  34. is a group of bytes packaged by a network adapter for transmission across the network;
  35. defines carrier sense multiple access with collision detection or CSMA/CD.
    IEEE 802.3
  36. is an architecture that distributes applications between servers such as Windows Server 2008 and client computers such as Windows 7 or Windows Vista machines.
    client-server model
  37. stores files for computers to share.
    A file server
  38. controls printers that can be connected directly to the serveror (and more commonly) are connected to the network.
    A print server
  39. houses a relational database made up of one or more files.
    A database server
  40. A controlling server, such as a Microsoft domain controller, is incharge of user accounts, computer accounts, network time, and the general well-beingof an entire domain of computers and users.
    Network controller
  41. include not just emailservers, but also fax, instant messaging, collaborative, and other types of messaging servers
    Messaging servers
  42. are important to share data and provide information about acompany.
    Web servers
  43. CTI is short for
    Computer Telephony Integration.
  44. This means each computer has an equal ability to serve data and to access data, just like any other computer on the network.
    Peer to peer