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Functions of the cardiovascular system
an internal transport network for oxygen, nutrients, waste products. Links all parts of the human body
study of blood
a specialized connective tissue with cells suspended in a fluid matrix
What are the functions blood?
- Regulates pH throughout the body
- Contains factors that enable blood clotting
- Transports WBC's and antibodies
- Stabilizes body temperature
What are the formed elements?
- RBC: Erythrocytes carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
- WBC: Leukocytes function as part of the immune system
- Platelets: small packets of cytoplasm (fragments torn from bone marrow
- cells) that contain enzymes and factors for blood clotting
clear fluid in which proteins are dissolved
What is the amount of blood: Males V.S Females?
- Male: 5 - 6 liters
- Female: 4 - 5 liters
collection of blood from the veins
Capillaries at tip of finger
What are the plasma proteins?
- Albumin: Most abundant protein; helps buffer pH of plasma, determines osmolarity & viscosity: changes affect blood pressure, volume, and flow
- Globulin (Alpha, Beta, & Gamma): antibody - transport proteins that bind to small ions that may otherwise be lost.
- Fibrinogen: clotting protein that forms a large fibrin mesh/clot at the site of an injury
Where are the plasma proteins synthesized?
Liver: synthesizes 90% of plasma proteins - except gamma globulin-plasma B-cells
Fluid that remains when blood clots
Sodium constitutes 90% of plasma cations & has a significant influence on blood pressure
Resistance of a fluid to flow i.e thickness/stickiness of blood, maintain ideal viscosity for optimum flow
- Total molarity of dissolved particles that cannot pass through the blood
- vessel wall (to nourish surrounding cells, substances must pass through
- vessel walls) determined by sodium, protein, & RBC content
What the RBC properties?
- most abundant blood cell accounting for 99.9% of formed elementscontains hemoglobin: binds & transports oxygen/carbon dioxide
- biconcave disc: allows bending and squeezing
- do not contain any mitochondria, ribosomes, or nuclei
- on anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP: this ensures oxygen is not stolen by the mitochondria and is instead taken directly to the tissues
- Lifespan: 120 days
What is sickle-cell anemia?How is it different from anemia alone?
- Anemia: reduced oxygen carrying capacity of RBC. muscle fatigue, weakness, lack of energy
- Sickle-cell anemia: decreases cells flexibility. half moon shape
Excessive RBC count makes blood abnormally viscous. ex. emphysema, smoking
formation of RBC, erythrocytes
low tissue oxygen
Athletes infuse RBC's to help increase oxygen to mucles. sudden death from too much stress to the heart can occur.
What are the different blood groups?
What are the consequences of mismatched blood type?
- opposing antibodies begin attacking surface antigens and agglutination
- (clumping) and hemolysis (destruction of erthrocytes) can occur
What are the WBC properties?
- Leukocytes are larger in size than RBC
- contain organells
- lack hemoglobin
- bodys defense against disease causing organisms and foreign components
- travel in blood or within tissues by squeezing in between epithelial cells in blood vessel
- respond to chemical signals
- Contain various specific granules that can be visualized with an electron microscope
- a) Basophil
- b) Eosinophil
- c) Neutrophil
- Lack specific granules
- d) monocytes
- e) lymphocytes
non specific defense mechanism whereby foreign particles/pathogens are engulfed by neutrolphils, eosinophils, & macrophages
- T & B cells
- B cells manufacture antibodies
- specific defenses: detect the identity of pathogens
- 1st responders to an infection
- engulf/phagocytose the pathogen and die off
- respond to antibody tagged pathogens
- involved in response to parasitic infections & allergic responses
# of WBC cells in the blood
reduced # of RBC
excessive # of WBC
cessation of bleeding
abnormally low amt of platelets
large blood clot that usually causes a stroke, blocks oxygen from brain / spinal cord