Chapter 14

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jessu
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Chapter 14
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2014-02-21 09:03:37
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final exam pt 1
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  1. Functions of the cardiovascular system
    an internal transport network for oxygen, nutrients, waste products. Links all parts of the human body
  2. HEMATOLOGY
    study of blood
  3. BLOOD
    a specialized connective tissue with cells suspended in a fluid matrix
  4. What are the functions blood?
    • Transportation
    • Regulates pH throughout the body
    • Contains factors that enable blood clotting
    • Transports WBC's and antibodies
    • Stabilizes body temperature
  5. What are the formed elements?
    • RBC: Erythrocytes carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • WBC: Leukocytes function as part of the immune system
    • Platelets: small packets of cytoplasm (fragments torn from bone marrow
    • cells) that contain enzymes and factors for blood clotting
  6. PLASMA
    clear fluid in which proteins are dissolved
  7. What is the amount of blood: Males V.S Females?
    • Male: 5 - 6 liters
    • Female: 4 - 5 liters
  8. VENIPUNCTURE
    collection of blood from the veins
  9. BLOOD SMEAR
    Capillaries at tip of finger
  10. What are the plasma proteins?
    • Albumin: Most abundant protein; helps buffer pH of plasma, determines osmolarity & viscosity: changes affect blood pressure, volume, and flow
    • Globulin (Alpha, Beta, & Gamma): antibody - transport proteins that bind to small ions that may otherwise be lost.
    • Fibrinogen: clotting protein that forms a large fibrin mesh/clot at the site of an injury
  11. Where are the plasma proteins synthesized?
    Liver: synthesizes 90% of plasma proteins       - except gamma globulin-plasma B-cells
  12. SERUM
    Fluid that remains when blood clots
  13. ELECTROLYTES
    Sodium constitutes 90% of plasma cations & has a significant influence on blood pressure
  14. VISCOSITY
    Resistance of a fluid to flow i.e thickness/stickiness of blood, maintain ideal viscosity for optimum flow
  15. OSMOLARITY
    • Total molarity of dissolved particles that cannot pass through the blood
    • vessel wall (to nourish surrounding cells, substances must pass through
    • vessel walls) determined by sodium, protein, & RBC content
  16. What the RBC properties?
    • most abundant blood cell accounting for 99.9% of formed elementscontains hemoglobin: binds & transports oxygen/carbon dioxide
    • biconcave
    • biconcave disc: allows bending and squeezing
    • do not contain any mitochondria, ribosomes, or nuclei
    • on anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP: this ensures oxygen is not stolen by the mitochondria and is instead taken directly to the tissues
    • Lifespan: 120 days
  17. What is sickle-cell anemia?How is it different from anemia alone?
    • Anemia: reduced oxygen carrying capacity of RBC. muscle fatigue, weakness, lack of energy
    • Sickle-cell anemia: decreases cells flexibility. half moon shape
  18. POLYCYTHEMIA
    Excessive RBC count makes blood abnormally viscous. ex. emphysema, smoking
  19. ERYTHROPOIESIS:
    formation of RBC, erythrocytes
  20. HYPOXIA
    low tissue oxygen
  21. BLOOD DOPING
    Athletes infuse RBC's to help increase oxygen to mucles. sudden death from too much stress to the heart can occur.
  22. What are the different blood groups?
  23. What are the consequences of mismatched blood type?
    • opposing antibodies begin attacking surface antigens and agglutination
    • (clumping) and hemolysis (destruction of erthrocytes) can occur
  24. What are the WBC properties?
    • Leukocytes are larger in size than RBC
    • contain organells
    • lack hemoglobin
    • bodys defense against disease causing organisms and foreign components
    • travel in blood or within tissues by squeezing in between epithelial cells in blood vessel
    • respond to chemical signals
  25. GRANULOCYTES
    • Contain various specific granules that can be visualized with an electron microscope
    • a) Basophil 
    • b) Eosinophil
    • c) Neutrophil
  26. AGRNULOCYTES
    • Lack specific granules
    • d) monocytes
    • e) lymphocytes
  27. PHAGOCYTOSIS
    non specific defense mechanism whereby foreign particles/pathogens are engulfed by neutrolphils, eosinophils, & macrophages
  28. LYMPHOCYTE
    • T & B cells
    • B cells manufacture antibodies
    • specific defenses: detect the identity of pathogens
  29. NEUTROPHIL
    • 1st responders to an infection
    • engulf/phagocytose the pathogen and die off
  30. EOSINOPHILS
    • respond to antibody tagged pathogens
    • involved in response to parasitic infections & allergic responses
  31. DIFFERENTIAL COUNT
    # of WBC cells in the blood
  32. LEUKOPENIA
    reduced # of RBC
  33. LEUKOCYTOSIS
    excessive # of WBC
  34. HEMOSTASIS
    cessation of bleeding
  35. THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    abnormally low amt of platelets
  36. THROMBOEMBOLISM
    large blood clot that usually causes a stroke, blocks oxygen from brain / spinal cord

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