Patho FINAL

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MeganM
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263155
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Patho FINAL
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2014-02-23 18:21:14
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Patho final
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  1. Coagulation disorder with paradoxical thrombosis and hemorrhage.
    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
  2. An acute complication of hypotension and septicemia; a common cause of respiratory failure.
    Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation
  3. What are some s/s of DIC?
    • shortness of breath
    • weak, thready pulse
    • cold & clammy skin
    • hematuria
  4. BGL > 600 mg/dL
    plasma osmolarity > 320 mOsm/L
    dehydration
    depression of sensorium
    • Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS)
    • *No ketoacidosis
  5. What type of pts is HHS mostly seen in?
    Most frequently in people with type 2 diabetes.
  6. What happens to water in people with HHS?
    It is pulled from the cells (including brain cells)
  7. s/s of HHS?
    • weakness
    • dehydration
    • polyuria
    • excessive thirst
    • changes in CNS (sometimes mistaken for stroke)
  8. What is osteoporosis?
    • Loss of mineralized bone mass; 
    • the bone resorption exceeds bone formation
    • Usually the bone loses density, which measures the amount of calcium and minerals in the bone
  9. When does the loss of bone mineral density increase related to osteoporosis?
    early menopause (decrease in estrogen)
  10. What is the main cause of fractures in older adults?
    Osteoporosis
  11. If hCG levels do not decrease in a pt with a hytadiform mole, what may develop?
    choriocarcinoma
  12. What can a high level of hCG hormone indicate in a person who is not pregnant?
    Cancer. Some cancerous tumores produces hCG
  13. What is TPA (Tissue Plasminogen Activator)?
    • A protein that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin and causes the breakdown of clots. 
    • (plasmin digests fibrin, & clot dissolves)
  14. When would TPA be used as a treatment?
    Embolic or Thrombotic Stroke
  15. When would administration of TPA be contraindicated?
    hemmorhagic stroke or head injury
  16. What is a molar pregnancy?
    • instead of a fetus growing in the uterus, an abnormal growth is and shows similar s/s of pregnancy.
    • This predisposes the pt to developing choriocarcinoma.
  17. What are the normal levels of hCG when a woman is not pregnant?
    < 5
  18. What does an hCG level of between 5 and 25 mean?
    You MIGHT be pregnant
  19. At what level is hCG upon confirmation of pregnancy?
    > 25
  20. What causes a cardiac tamponade?
    pericardial effusion (fluid im the pericardial CAVITY)
  21. What is cardiac tamponade?
    • The heart is compressed due to accumulation of fluid, pus, or blood in the pericardial SAC.
    • decrease in SV, CO, & organ perfusion
    • increased intracardiac pressure
  22. Where is HDL made?
    in the liver
  23. What does HDL do?
    carries cholesterol from peripheral tissues back to liver
  24. What is HDL mostly made of?
    50% protein
  25. What is 54% of the plasma proteins and helps maintain BV by contributing to osmotic pressure?
    albumin
  26. What kind of defects is CHF associated with?
    acyanotic (abnormal circulation, but all blood entering systemic system is oxygenated)
  27. CHF is a common complication of what?
    congenital disease
  28. What is CHF (congestive heart failure)?
    • Heart is unable to pump effectively
    • pressure in the heart increases.
    • As a result, the heart cannot pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body's needs.
  29. What is barrel chest an indication of? What causes it?
    • Emphysema
    • Use of accessory muscles to breath because lungs are chronically over-filled with air
  30. What is emphysema?
    damage to the air sacs cause air pockets which trap air and breathing is difficult
  31. What is the significance of AAT (Alpha-1-antitrypsin) in emphysema?
    • They normally protect the breakdown of elastin by proteases.
    • If someone is deficient in AAT (produced in the liver), it can result in emphysema.
  32. What is Addison Disease?
    • hypofunction of the adrenal cortex
    • lack of cortisol, aldosterone, androgens
  33. Why is there an increase in ACTH in Addioson Disease pts?
    lack of feedback inhibition
  34. Clinical manifestations of Addision disease.
    • hyponatremia (no aldosterone)
    • hyperkalemia (decreased excretion)
    • decreased ECF
    • decreased CO
    • hyperpigmentation (elevated ACTH)
  35. Other than helping in the stress response, what else does cortisol help with (Addison disease pts lack this)?
    • regulate blood pressure &  immune system
    • balance the effect of insulin in regulating the blood sugar level
  36. Addison disease pts lack aldosterone. Why is aldosterone important?
    • It helps regulate salts in the blood and
    • helps to control blood pressure.
  37. If a pt came in with stiffness, wt loss, and swelling of BOTH hands and wrists, what would you suspect?
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  38. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, progressive deterioration of what?
    Connective Tissue (synovium) of joints
  39. What would you leave out when assessing a pt with suspected rheumatoid arthritis?
    ROM - this causes pain and is limited
  40. What is multiple sclerosis?
    inflammation and destruciton of the CNS myelin
  41. What is the focus for treatment in MS?
    preventing infection
  42. Where do symptoms usually begin in MS pts?
    weakness in arms, eventually progressing to spastic paralysis
  43. What is shock?
    • Widespread, serious reduction of tissue perfusion
    • leads to generalized impairment of cellular fxn
  44. Most common cause of shock.
    Hypovolemia
  45. What causes septic shock?
    • release of endotoxins by bacteria;
    • act on nerves in vascular space and cause pooling; 
    • decreases venous rtn & CO = poor systemic perfusion
  46. Early signs of shock.
    agitation and restlessness due to cerebral hypoxia
  47. Complete failure of bone ends to unite.
    Nonunion
  48. Fracture healing doesn't occur at normal rate of 6-8 weeks.
    Delayed union
  49. Deformity at the fracture site caused by malalignment of fracture at time of immobilization.
    Malunion
  50. What is a fat embolism?
    fat molecules in the bloodstream combine with platelets and form an embolus.
  51. Normal Hct levels.
    Men: 40-54%
  52. Normal Hgb values.
    • Men: 13.5-18 g/dL
    • Women: 12-15 g/dL
  53. What prevents ECF from becoming too acidic or too alkaline?
    HCO3 (buffer)
  54. Most common cause of death from a fracture.
    Hypovolemic shock
  55. Common cause of hemiplegia.
    • damage to the corticospinal tracts in one hemisphere of the brain due to:
    • obstruction/rupture of a cerebral artery
    • or brain tumor.
  56. Sharp, bright, burning pain. Can have fast or slow onset.
    Cutaneous
  57. Pain that stems from tendons, muscles, joints, periosteum, & BV.
    Deep Somatic Pain
  58. Pain that orginates from internal organs; diffused at first may be localized.
    Visceral pain
  59. A large pulmonary embolus can affect the heart how?
    cause rt side heart failure
  60. s/s of pulmonary embolus.
    chest pain, shortness of breath

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