Sociology Chapter 4

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  1. Group
    set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations
  2. 7 types of societies
    • Preindustrial- no machines
    • hunting-gathering-gather food daily for their family
    • Pastoral- herd animals
    • horticulture- garden plots with fruits and veggies
    • agricultural- grow large crops
    • industrial- processed foods and factories
    • Postindustrial- others provide them with food
  3. Division of Labor
    specialization of performance of economic activities
  4. Barter
    exchange of goods or services
  5. Urbanization
    concentration of population in cities
  6. Social Category
    classifying people according to shared traits or common status
  7. Status
    defined position in a group
  8. Role
    behavior expected of someone in a group
  9. Ascribed status
    assigned according to qualities beyond a person's control
  10. achieved status
    acquired through own efforts
  11. reciprocal roles
    corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
  12. role expectations
    determined behaviors expected of a person in a role
  13. role performance
    actual role behavior
  14. role set
    different roles attached to a single role
  15. role conflict
    difficulty fulfilling role expectations of a status
  16. role strain
    when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a status
  17. social instutution
    organizations that satisfies the basic needs of a society
  18. exchange
    people interact in an effort to recieve a reward
  19. competition
    when 2 or mor people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal
  20. cooperation
    when 2 or more people or groups word together to achieve a goal
  21. accomodation
    state of balance between cooperation and conflict
  22. small group
    everyone is able to interact face to face
  23. formal group
    structure goals and activities are clearly defined
  24. informal group
    no official structure or established set of rules
  25. 5 types of groups
    • primary-interact for a long period of time¬†
    • secondary- temporay and impersonal
    • reference-club or coworkers¬†
    • in-group- group you hang out with
    • out-group- people you dont associate with
  26. e-community
    people who interact on the internet
  27. social networks
    direct or indirect relationships
  28. types of leaders
    • instrumental-task-oriented
    • expressive-emotional-oriented
Card Set
Sociology Chapter 4
Chapter 4
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