Microbiology Chapter 15.txt

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Microbiology Chapter 15.txt
2010-07-11 07:04:55
Microbiology Chapter Fifteen

Microbiology Chapter 15
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  1. Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract and Skin
    • Pneumotropic Viral Diseases
    • Influenza
    • Adenoviruses
    • Rhinoviruses
  2. Influenza virus description
    • Orthomyxoviridae
    • 8 ssRNA segments
    • Envelope with spikes
  3. Influenza symptoms
    Fever, Fatigue, headache, pain
  4. Influenza Complications
    • Reye's syndrome
    • Guillian Barre
  5. Influenza complications such as pneumonia or secondary infections occur in
    • Infants
    • Elderly
    • Immunocompromised people
  6. Influenza Transmission
    Respiratory droplets
  7. There have been at least __ influenza pandemics since 1510
  8. Rhinovirus infection
    • Icosahedral picornaviridae
    • ssRNA
  9. Rhinovirus symptoms
    • Common colds�head colds
    • Headache, chills, dry-scratchy throat, runny nose, plugged nose
  10. Rhinovirus Transmission
    Spread hand to hand, sneezing, coughing
  11. Adenovirus infections
    • Icosahedral virions
    • dsDNA
    • Show inclusion bodies
  12. Adenovirus diseases
    • Common cold
    • Keratoconjunctivitis
    • Viral meningitis
  13. Adenovirus Symptoms
    • Fever, sore throat, cough, swollen lymph nodes
    • They induce the formation of inclusion bodies in host tissues
  14. Adenovirus Infection can cause:
    • Acute febrile pharygitis
    • Pharyngoconjuntival fever
    • Acute respiratory disease
    • Any of these can progress to viral pneumonia
  15. Dermotropic Viral Diseases
    • Herpes Simplex
    • Chicken Pox
    • Measles (Rubeola)
    • Rubella (German Measles)
  16. Human Herpesvirus 6 Infections Primarily Occur
    in Infancy
  17. HH6 causes
    • roseola infantum, marked by:
    • high fever
    • subsequent red rash
  18. Human Herpesvirus 6 is spread through
    contact with respiratory secretions or saliva
  19. Many bone barrow transplant recipients suffer an ___ after transplantation
    HHV-6 viremia
  20. Some researchers believe HHV-6 lies dormant for years and may be associated with ___
    multiple sclerosis later in life
  21. Herpes simplex description
    • Icosahedral with envelope and spikes
    • dsDNA
    • Lipschutz bodies
  22. Herpes Simplex Diseases
    • Cold sores
    • Neonatal herpes
    • Gingivostomatitus
    • Keratitis
    • Genital herpes
  23. Cold sores are contagious sores caused by
    • HSV-1
    • After primary infection, the HSV-1
    • Becomes latent in sensory ganglia
  24. Recurrence of cold sores occurs when
    Viruses are reactivated and move to the epithelium
  25. Genital Herpes Symptoms
    Itching and throbbing in the genital area followed by blisters
  26. Genital Herpes Treatment
  27. Genital herpes is a common STD, caused usually by
  28. There is no cure for genital herpers but antivirals can
    Shorten and decrease the number of outbreaks
  29. Infection of the eye is called
    • Herpes keratitis
    • It can cause scarring of the cornea and blindness
  30. Neonatal herpes is
    • A life-threatening disease passed from infected mothers to newborns during childbirth
    • The child's mental development can be delayed
    • Blindness and seizures can occur
  31. Chickenpox (Varicella)
    • Icosahedral, with envelope
    • dsDNA
    • It is a highly communicable disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
  32. Chickenpox Vaccine
    A vaccine using attenuated viruses became available in 1995
  33. Chickenpox Symptoms
    • Fever, headache, general malaise
    • Teardrop-shaped fluid-filled vesicles
    • A red, itchy rash spreads across the entire body and turns into fluid-filled vesicles
    • The itchy vesicles break open and yield highly infectious virus-laden fluid
  34. Chickenpox transmission
    It is transmitted by skin contact and respiratory droplets
  35. Chickenpox Incubation
    2 weeks
  36. Chickenpox complications
    • The most common complication is bacterial infection of the skin
    • Pneumonia, encephalitis, or Reye syndrome may also occur
  37. Herpes zoster (shingles)
    • If they are reactivated, they can travel to the body trunk and cause blisters and patches of red
    • It can also cause facial paralysis and severe 'ice-pick� pains
    • It can occur repeatedly
  38. Postherpetic neuralgia is the
    Persistence of shingles pain for years after the blisters have disappeared
  39. Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8
    • Kaposi sarcomic is an angiogenic tumor of the blood vessel walls
    • It is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients
    • It is caused by HHV-8, forming dark or purple skin lesions
  40. A Few Herpesvirus Infections Are Oncogenic
    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) are oncogenic
  41. B Virus
    B virus, or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, is an infectious agent that is commonly found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys infected with this virus usually have no or mild symptoms. In humans, however, B virus infection can result in a fatal encephalomyelitis. B virus disease in humans is extremely rare, but often fatal -- an estimated 80% of untreated patients die of complications associated with the infection.
  42. Measles (Rubeola) Description
    • Paramyxoviridae
    • s.s.RNA helical virion with envelope and spikes
  43. Measles Symptoms
    • Coughing, sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, high fever (104)
    • Koplik spots
    • Red rash starts at hairline
    • No sore throat as found in scarlet fever
  44. Measles Complications include
    • Bacterial disease in the respiratory tissue
    • Panencephalitis
  45. Measles Vaccine
  46. Rubella (German measles) Description
    • Togaviridae
    • s.s.RNA icosahedral virion with envelope and spikes
    • Dangerous to pregnant women in first trimester
  47. Rubella Transmission
    Spread by contact or resp. droplets
  48. Rubella (German measles) Symptoms
    • Variable fever
    • maculopapular rash: head to rest of body
    • mild cold symptoms
    • swollen lymph nodes
  49. Rubella (German measles) Incubation:
    • 1 day, lasts 1-2 days
    • Recovery is usually prompt, but relapses can occur
  50. Rubella (German measles) Vaccine
  51. Congenital rubella occurs when
    The fetus is infected through the placenta
  52. Children with congenital rubella may be born with problems in the:
    • eye
    • ear
    • heart
  53. Mumps Transmission
    It is spread by respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated objects
  54. Mumps (infectious parotitis) is characterized by
    • enlarged jaw tissues caused by swollen salivary glands
    • The swelling is caused by blockage of ducts leading from the parotid glands
  55. Mumps virus
  56. Mumps complications
    In males, swelling and damage may occur in the testes (orchitis)
  57. Fifth Disease
    • (Erythema Infectiosum) Produces a Mild Rash
    • It is caused by a member of the Parvoviridae
  58. Fifth Disease Transmission
    Transmission occurs through respiratory droplets
  59. Fifth Disease Symptoms include
    • A fiery red rash on the cheeks and ears, and trunk
    • It disappears within a few days
  60. Fifth Disease in Adults
    Can experience symptoms similar to those of rheumatoid arthritis
  61. Fifth Disease Virus
    Human parvovirus B19
  62. Warts
    • Planter warts
    • Genital warts
    • Human papilloma virus
  63. Wart virus
    • Human papilloma virus
    • Icosahedral DNA
  64. Common warts are usually
    Benign skin growths resulting from a specific strain of HPV
  65. Warts Transmission
    • An affected person
    • A contaminated object
    • Genital warts (condylomata) are often transmitted through sexual contact
    • They may be transmitted to newborns during delivery
  66. Smallpox
    • Vaccinations ceased in the U.S. in 1972 after eradication occurred, so many people are not immune
    • Smallpox is one of the most dangerous weapons of bioterrorism
  67. Hemagglutinin
    • It facilitates the attachment and penetration of influenza viruses to host cells.
    • It's shape determines the host range and tropism
    • An enzyme in one of the two spikes projecting from the envelope of the influenza virus.
  68. Neuraminidase
    • A protein assisting the release of the virions from the host cell when replication is complete.
    • An enzyme in one of the two spikes projecting from the envelope of the influenza virus.
  69. Antigenic shift
    • An abrupt major change in structure to influenza A viruses.
    • It may give rise to new strains that can now jump to another species to which everyone is totally defenseless, and from which a pandemic may ensue.
  70. Guillaine-Barre syndrome
    The body mistargets the influenza infection and instead damages its own peripheral nerve cells causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis
  71. Reye syndrome
    • Usually appears in young people after taking aspirin to treat fever or pain associated with influenza or chicken pox.
    • It begins with nausea and vomiting but progressive mental changes may occur such as confusion or delirium.
  72. Pharyngoconjunctival fever
    • Caused by an Adenovirus
    • A form of conjunctivitis most commonly contracted by swimming in virus contaminated water.
  73. Viral pneumonia
    • Caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
    • An infection takes place in the bronchioles and air sacs of the lungs
  74. Herpes keratitis
    • A herpes infection of the eye.
    • Causes scarring of the cornea and is a leading cause of blindness in the US
  75. Croup
    An inflammation of the larynx and trachea causing cough, hoarseness and breathing difficulties.
  76. TORCH
    • A test which focuses on diseases that have congenital significance.
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Other
    • Syphilis
    • Rubella
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes
  77. Shingles
    • An adult disease produced by the same virus causing chickenpox.
    • The virus causes blisters with blotchy patches of red that appear to encircle the trunk
    • Headache, facial paralysis, and very debilitating ice pick pains
    • Linked to physical and emotional stress
  78. Kaposi sarcoma
    A highly angiogenic tumor of the blood vessel walls most commonly seen in those with weakened immune systems such AIDS patients
  79. Angiogenic
    Refering to the generation of many blood cells
  80. Koplik spots
    Red patches with white grain-like centers appear along the gum line in the mouth 2-4 days after the onset of measles symptoms.
  81. MMR
    Measles, Mumps & Rubella vaccine
  82. Infections parotitis
  83. Orchitis
    • Mumps infection of the testicles
    • The sperm count may be reduced but sterility is not common.
  84. Plantar warts
    Warts on the foot
  85. Pocks
    The pitted scars left by the smallpox pustules
  86. Mulluscum bodies
    • A characteristic feature of the viral disease Molluscum contagiosum
    • Large cytoplasmic bodies in the infected cells from the base of the lesion.
  87. Significant features of influenza
  88. Significant features of mumps
    Enlarged jaw tissue arising from swollen salivary glands
  89. Significant features of chickenpox
    • Begins in the respiratory tract with a fever, headache and malaise.
    • Moves from the bloodstream to nerves to localize on the skin.
    • An itch red rash on the face, scalp, chest and back is produced that can spread across the entire body.
  90. Significant features of measles
    • Hacking cough, sneezing, nasal discharge, eye redness, sensitivity to light and high fever
    • Koplik spots appear along the gum line 2-4 days after the onset of symptoms.
    • The red rash begins as pink-red pimple like spots (macropapuals) and breaks out at the hairline. It then covers the face and spreads to the trunk and extremities.
  91. Significant features of congenital rubella
    • Can lead to destruction of fetal capillaries and blood insufficiency follows.
    • The organs most often affected are the eyes, ears, and cardiovascular organs.
    • Children may be born with cataracts, glaucoma, deafness or heart defects.
  92. Pneumotropic viral diseases are those that occur in the ___ tract of the body
  93. One viral disease of the respiratory tract, influenza is transmitted by ___
    Airborne respiratory droplets
  94. The spikes of an influenza virus contain the enzymes ___ and ___
    • Hemaglutinin
    • Neuraminidase
  95. Chemical changes is the spikes of the influenza virus are responsible for ___.
    Antigenic variation.
  96. The three major types of influenza are __, __, __
    • A - strikes every year and causes most flu epidemics. Divided into subtypes bases on H & N surface glycoproteins
    • B - strikes every year but is less widespread than type A. Only humans. No subtypes
    • C - causes a mild respiratory illness but not epidemics
  97. How many hemaglutinin subtypes are there?
    15 known
  98. How many neuraminidase subtypes are there?
    9 known
  99. Although influenza is a mild disease, secondary complications may arise from infection with ___
  100. Active cases of type A influenza may be treated with the drug ___
  101. Among the common cold viruses are a collection of multiple types of icosahedral DNA viruses called ___
  102. Icosahedral DNA viruses may also cause an eye infection known as ___ when transmission occurs by contaminated water
    Pharyngoconjunctival fever, AKA keratoconjunctivitis
  103. One of the most common lower respiratory tract diseases in infants is caused by the respiratory ___ virus
  104. The RS virus derives its name from the observation that the virus causes infected tissue cells to fuse and form ___
    Syncytia: giant multinucleate cells caused by tissue cells fusing together
  105. Rhinoviruses cause respiratory viral infections mainly in the ___.
    Lining of the nose, sinuses, throat and upper airways, AKA the upper respiratory tract
  106. Prospects for developing a cold vaccine are not promising because ___.
    There are more than 200 viruses and strains that cause the common cold.
  107. The mortality rate for SARS in 2003 was about ___ percent.
  108. In the most serious cases of SARS, ___ develops.
  109. Variola
  110. Epidemic parotitis
  111. Rhinovirus infection
    Common cold
  112. Rubeola
  113. Varicella
  114. Rubella
    German measles
  115. Roseola