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Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract and Skin
- Pneumotropic Viral Diseases
Influenza virus description
- 8 ssRNA segments
- Envelope with spikes
Fever, Fatigue, headache, pain
- Reye's syndrome
- Guillian Barre
Influenza complications such as pneumonia or secondary infections occur in
- Immunocompromised people
There have been at least __ influenza pandemics since 1510
- Icosahedral picornaviridae
- Common colds�head colds
- Headache, chills, dry-scratchy throat, runny nose, plugged nose
Spread hand to hand, sneezing, coughing
- Icosahedral virions
- Show inclusion bodies
- Common cold
- Viral meningitis
- Fever, sore throat, cough, swollen lymph nodes
- They induce the formation of inclusion bodies in host tissues
Adenovirus Infection can cause:
- Acute febrile pharygitis
- Pharyngoconjuntival fever
- Acute respiratory disease
- Any of these can progress to viral pneumonia
Dermotropic Viral Diseases
- Herpes Simplex
- Chicken Pox
- Measles (Rubeola)
- Rubella (German Measles)
Human Herpesvirus 6 Infections Primarily Occur
- roseola infantum, marked by:
- high fever
- subsequent red rash
Human Herpesvirus 6 is spread through
contact with respiratory secretions or saliva
Many bone barrow transplant recipients suffer an ___ after transplantation
Some researchers believe HHV-6 lies dormant for years and may be associated with ___
multiple sclerosis later in life
Herpes simplex description
- Icosahedral with envelope and spikes
- Lipschutz bodies
Herpes Simplex Diseases
- Cold sores
- Neonatal herpes
- Genital herpes
Cold sores are contagious sores caused by
- After primary infection, the HSV-1
- Becomes latent in sensory ganglia
Recurrence of cold sores occurs when
Viruses are reactivated and move to the epithelium
Genital Herpes Symptoms
Itching and throbbing in the genital area followed by blisters
Genital Herpes Treatment
Genital herpes is a common STD, caused usually by
There is no cure for genital herpers but antivirals can
Shorten and decrease the number of outbreaks
Infection of the eye is called
- Herpes keratitis
- It can cause scarring of the cornea and blindness
Neonatal herpes is
- A life-threatening disease passed from infected mothers to newborns during childbirth
- The child's mental development can be delayed
- Blindness and seizures can occur
- Icosahedral, with envelope
- It is a highly communicable disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
A vaccine using attenuated viruses became available in 1995
- Fever, headache, general malaise
- Teardrop-shaped fluid-filled vesicles
- A red, itchy rash spreads across the entire body and turns into fluid-filled vesicles
- The itchy vesicles break open and yield highly infectious virus-laden fluid
It is transmitted by skin contact and respiratory droplets
- The most common complication is bacterial infection of the skin
- Pneumonia, encephalitis, or Reye syndrome may also occur
Herpes zoster (shingles)
- If they are reactivated, they can travel to the body trunk and cause blisters and patches of red
- It can also cause facial paralysis and severe 'ice-pick� pains
- It can occur repeatedly
Postherpetic neuralgia is the
Persistence of shingles pain for years after the blisters have disappeared
Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8
- Kaposi sarcomic is an angiogenic tumor of the blood vessel walls
- It is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients
- It is caused by HHV-8, forming dark or purple skin lesions
A Few Herpesvirus Infections Are Oncogenic
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) are oncogenic
B virus, or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, is an infectious agent that is commonly found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys infected with this virus usually have no or mild symptoms. In humans, however, B virus infection can result in a fatal encephalomyelitis. B virus disease in humans is extremely rare, but often fatal -- an estimated 80% of untreated patients die of complications associated with the infection.
Measles (Rubeola) Description
- s.s.RNA helical virion with envelope and spikes
- Coughing, sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, high fever (104)
- Koplik spots
- Red rash starts at hairline
- No sore throat as found in scarlet fever
Measles Complications include
- Bacterial disease in the respiratory tissue
Rubella (German measles) Description
- s.s.RNA icosahedral virion with envelope and spikes
- Dangerous to pregnant women in first trimester
Spread by contact or resp. droplets
Rubella (German measles) Symptoms
- Variable fever
- maculopapular rash: head to rest of body
- mild cold symptoms
- swollen lymph nodes
Rubella (German measles) Incubation:
- 1 day, lasts 1-2 days
- Recovery is usually prompt, but relapses can occur
Rubella (German measles) Vaccine
Congenital rubella occurs when
The fetus is infected through the placenta
Children with congenital rubella may be born with problems in the:
It is spread by respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated objects
Mumps (infectious parotitis) is characterized by
- enlarged jaw tissues caused by swollen salivary glands
- The swelling is caused by blockage of ducts leading from the parotid glands
In males, swelling and damage may occur in the testes (orchitis)
- (Erythema Infectiosum) Produces a Mild Rash
- It is caused by a member of the Parvoviridae
Fifth Disease Transmission
Transmission occurs through respiratory droplets
Fifth Disease Symptoms include
- A fiery red rash on the cheeks and ears, and trunk
- It disappears within a few days
Fifth Disease in Adults
Can experience symptoms similar to those of rheumatoid arthritis
Fifth Disease Virus
Human parvovirus B19
- Planter warts
- Genital warts
- Human papilloma virus
- Human papilloma virus
- Icosahedral DNA
Common warts are usually
Benign skin growths resulting from a specific strain of HPV
- An affected person
- A contaminated object
- Genital warts (condylomata) are often transmitted through sexual contact
- They may be transmitted to newborns during delivery
- Vaccinations ceased in the U.S. in 1972 after eradication occurred, so many people are not immune
- Smallpox is one of the most dangerous weapons of bioterrorism
- It facilitates the attachment and penetration of influenza viruses to host cells.
- It's shape determines the host range and tropism
- An enzyme in one of the two spikes projecting from the envelope of the influenza virus.
- A protein assisting the release of the virions from the host cell when replication is complete.
- An enzyme in one of the two spikes projecting from the envelope of the influenza virus.
- An abrupt major change in structure to influenza A viruses.
- It may give rise to new strains that can now jump to another species to which everyone is totally defenseless, and from which a pandemic may ensue.
The body mistargets the influenza infection and instead damages its own peripheral nerve cells causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis
- Usually appears in young people after taking aspirin to treat fever or pain associated with influenza or chicken pox.
- It begins with nausea and vomiting but progressive mental changes may occur such as confusion or delirium.
- Caused by an Adenovirus
- A form of conjunctivitis most commonly contracted by swimming in virus contaminated water.
- Caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
- An infection takes place in the bronchioles and air sacs of the lungs
- A herpes infection of the eye.
- Causes scarring of the cornea and is a leading cause of blindness in the US
An inflammation of the larynx and trachea causing cough, hoarseness and breathing difficulties.
- A test which focuses on diseases that have congenital significance.
- An adult disease produced by the same virus causing chickenpox.
- The virus causes blisters with blotchy patches of red that appear to encircle the trunk
- Headache, facial paralysis, and very debilitating ice pick pains
- Linked to physical and emotional stress
A highly angiogenic tumor of the blood vessel walls most commonly seen in those with weakened immune systems such AIDS patients
Refering to the generation of many blood cells
Red patches with white grain-like centers appear along the gum line in the mouth 2-4 days after the onset of measles symptoms.
Measles, Mumps & Rubella vaccine
- Mumps infection of the testicles
- The sperm count may be reduced but sterility is not common.
Warts on the foot
The pitted scars left by the smallpox pustules
- A characteristic feature of the viral disease Molluscum contagiosum
- Large cytoplasmic bodies in the infected cells from the base of the lesion.
Significant features of influenza
Significant features of mumps
Enlarged jaw tissue arising from swollen salivary glands
Significant features of chickenpox
- Begins in the respiratory tract with a fever, headache and malaise.
- Moves from the bloodstream to nerves to localize on the skin.
- An itch red rash on the face, scalp, chest and back is produced that can spread across the entire body.
Significant features of measles
- Hacking cough, sneezing, nasal discharge, eye redness, sensitivity to light and high fever
- Koplik spots appear along the gum line 2-4 days after the onset of symptoms.
- The red rash begins as pink-red pimple like spots (macropapuals) and breaks out at the hairline. It then covers the face and spreads to the trunk and extremities.
Significant features of congenital rubella
- Can lead to destruction of fetal capillaries and blood insufficiency follows.
- The organs most often affected are the eyes, ears, and cardiovascular organs.
- Children may be born with cataracts, glaucoma, deafness or heart defects.
Pneumotropic viral diseases are those that occur in the ___ tract of the body
One viral disease of the respiratory tract, influenza is transmitted by ___
Airborne respiratory droplets
The spikes of an influenza virus contain the enzymes ___ and ___
Chemical changes is the spikes of the influenza virus are responsible for ___.
The three major types of influenza are __, __, __
- A - strikes every year and causes most flu epidemics. Divided into subtypes bases on H & N surface glycoproteins
- B - strikes every year but is less widespread than type A. Only humans. No subtypes
- C - causes a mild respiratory illness but not epidemics
How many hemaglutinin subtypes are there?
How many neuraminidase subtypes are there?
Although influenza is a mild disease, secondary complications may arise from infection with ___
Active cases of type A influenza may be treated with the drug ___
Among the common cold viruses are a collection of multiple types of icosahedral DNA viruses called ___
Icosahedral DNA viruses may also cause an eye infection known as ___ when transmission occurs by contaminated water
Pharyngoconjunctival fever, AKA keratoconjunctivitis
One of the most common lower respiratory tract diseases in infants is caused by the respiratory ___ virus
The RS virus derives its name from the observation that the virus causes infected tissue cells to fuse and form ___
Syncytia: giant multinucleate cells caused by tissue cells fusing together
Rhinoviruses cause respiratory viral infections mainly in the ___.
Lining of the nose, sinuses, throat and upper airways, AKA the upper respiratory tract
Prospects for developing a cold vaccine are not promising because ___.
There are more than 200 viruses and strains that cause the common cold.
The mortality rate for SARS in 2003 was about ___ percent.
In the most serious cases of SARS, ___ develops.