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What is psychobiology?
The study of brain behavior or behavioral neuroscience
uncontrolled proliferation of WBS'c in bone marrow
How does HIV replicate?
killing the CD4 T-cell and releasing copies into the blood
HIV is what?
Retrovirus that selectively attacks the CD4 lymphocytes and destroys the immune system.
What is the cell count of AIDS?
<200 CD4 count
What happens to CD4 count in HIV?
- the count decreases and cannot be replaced.
- as it decreases- risk of opportunistic infection and death increases
What happens in Diverticulosis?
mucosal layer of the colon herniates through the muscularis layer
diagnostic tests for diverticulosis?
- guaic stool
- barium enema
- CT scan
signs/symptoms of diverticulosis
- severe constipation
- lower left side abdominal pain
- abdominal rigidity
- elevated WBC count
- occasional rectal bleeding
- may have no symptoms
What intestinal disorder is caused by fecal contaminated food and water?
Dysentery=inflammation, abd pain, straining and blood and mucous in diarrhea
what is bacillary dysentery?
- Can be mild,sudden, severe or fatal
Characteristics of Shigella?
- Fluid loss and dehydration
- large intestine ulceration (advanced stage)
treat with antibiotics, fluid replacement, blood transfusion
What causes Amoebic Dysentery?
how is Amoebic dysentery diagnosed?
what causes diverticulosis?
most common >60
- severe constipation
- lack of fiber
- lack of nutrients from diet
- bacteria from food becomes trapped in pouches
What is ALS Lou Gehrig's Disease?
Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis
neurologic disorder that selectively affects motor function
progressive muscular atrophy
Progression of ALS?
- -progressive weakness in distal muscles of one upper extremity
- -then regional weakness
- -then multiple limbs and head
- -then palate, tongue,neck (can't swallow)
- -then cranial nerves and death
Survival period of ALS?
2-5 years from onset
What is erythropoietin?
Hormone mostly formed in kidneys that regulates differentiation of RBC's in bone marrow
How is erythropoietin synthesized?
stimulated by hypoxia
what is ARDS?
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
inadequate exchange of O2 for CO2 in Lungs
What does fluid have to do with ARDS?
Edema accumulates in interstitial spaces which leads to Bilateral Pulmonary Edema (w crackles)
fluid buildup prevents O2 from getting into Lungs and Blood
Lungs become heavy and stiff
What acid is a problem with GOUT?
it builds up in the blood and causes inflammation and crystallization in the synovial joint of toe or knee or ankle joints
What is an acute complication of DM?
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- hyperglycemia (BGL>250)
- metabolic acidosis
What is diabetes mellitus?
disorder of protein, carbohydrate, fat metabolism
imbalance between insulin availability and need
Type I Diabetes?
- childhood onset
- loss of Beta cell function
- insulin DEFICIENT
Type II Diabetes?
- usually adult onset
- impaired beta cell function
- Insulin RESISTANT
increased hepatic glucose production
What are the two types of Type I Diabetes?
1A- immune mediated beta cell destruction
1B-idiopathic-strongly inherited- common in African Americans
What is hypoglycemia level?
Chronic complications of DM?
- foot ulceration
decreased response to ADH
- large urine output + excessive thirst
- (unable to concentrate their urine)
What happens in Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus?
deficit of synthesis and release of ADH
(head injury or surgery near hypothalamohypophyseal tract)
What happens in Nephrogenic DI?
kidneys do not respond to ADH
(genetic trait or drugs like lithium or electrolyte deficiencies)
What is Addison's?
primary adrenal insufficiency of adrenal cortical hormones
which disorder requires lifelong hormone replacement and destroys all layers of the adrenal cortex?
- ACTH levels are elevated bc no feedback inhibition
what are some causes of Addison's?
- Fungal infection
- open heart surgery
symptoms of Addisons?
- poor tolerance to stress
- limited ability to fight infections
- decreased CO
- salt craving
Acute Renal Failure?
- abrupt decrease in renal function
- sufficient enough to result in retention of nitrogenous waste and disrupt fluid and electrolyte
biology dealing with relations btwn body and behavior
- especially as shown thru nervous system
- receptors and effectors
What is Parkinson's?
- degeneration disorder of basal ganglia =
- tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia
degeneration of Dopamine neuron
What do we do for ARDS patient?
- Elevate head 30+ degrees
- lung sounds ventilation
- ABG suction
- monitor for hypoxemia fluid/electrolyte
- kidney output
what happens with Asthma?
- chronic inflammatory reactive airway disease
- airway: congested with mucus
- smooth bronchioles constrict
- alveoli air trapping
What is emphysema?
- destruction of alveolar walls
- abnormal enlargement of gas-exchange airways
- loss of elastic recoil
- no fibrosis