Patho Final

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Author:
LeeK
ID:
263263
Filename:
Patho Final
Updated:
2014-02-21 23:51:25
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Pathophysiology
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Patho final
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  1. What is psychobiology?
    The study of brain behavior or behavioral neuroscience
  2. Leukemia
    uncontrolled proliferation of WBS'c in bone marrow
  3. How does HIV replicate?
    killing the CD4 T-cell and releasing copies into the blood
  4. HIV is what?
    Retrovirus that selectively attacks the CD4 lymphocytes and destroys the immune system.
  5. What is the cell count of AIDS?
    <200 CD4 count
  6. What happens to CD4 count in HIV?
    • the count decreases and cannot be replaced.
    •  
    • as it decreases- risk of opportunistic infection and death increases
  7. What happens in Diverticulosis?
    mucosal layer of the colon herniates through the muscularis layer
  8. diagnostic tests for diverticulosis?
    • Ultrasound
    • colonoscopy
    • guaic stool
    • barium enema
    • CT scan
    • Sigmoidoscopy
  9. signs/symptoms of diverticulosis
    • severe constipation
    • lower left side abdominal pain
    • fever
    • guarding
    • abdominal rigidity
    • elevated WBC count
    • occasional rectal bleeding
    • may have no symptoms
  10. What intestinal disorder is caused by fecal contaminated food and water?
    Dysentery=inflammation, abd pain, straining and blood and mucous in diarrhea
  11. what is bacillary dysentery?
    • Shigella
    • Can be mild,sudden, severe or fatal
  12. Characteristics of Shigella?
    • Fluid loss and dehydration
    • large intestine ulceration (advanced stage)

    treat with antibiotics, fluid replacement, blood transfusion
  13. What causes Amoebic Dysentery?
    Entamoeba histolytica
  14. how is Amoebic dysentery diagnosed?
    stool sample
  15. what causes diverticulosis?
    most common >60

    • severe constipation
    • lack of fiber
    • lack of nutrients from diet
    • bacteria from food becomes trapped in pouches
  16. What is ALS Lou Gehrig's Disease?
    Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    neurologic disorder that selectively affects motor function

    progressive muscular atrophy
  17. Progression of ALS?
    • -progressive weakness in distal muscles of one upper extremity
    • -then regional weakness
    • -then multiple limbs and head
    • -then palate, tongue,neck (can't swallow)
    • -then cranial nerves and death
  18. Survival period of ALS?
    2-5 years from onset
  19. What is erythropoietin?
    Hormone mostly formed in kidneys that regulates differentiation of RBC's in bone marrow
  20. How is erythropoietin synthesized?
    stimulated by hypoxia
  21. what is ARDS?
    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    inadequate exchange of O2 for CO2 in Lungs
  22. What does fluid have to do with ARDS?
    Edema accumulates in interstitial spaces which leads to Bilateral Pulmonary Edema (w crackles)

    fluid buildup prevents O2 from getting into Lungs and Blood

    Lungs become heavy and stiff
  23. What acid is a problem with GOUT?
    uric acid

    it builds up in the blood and causes inflammation and crystallization in the synovial joint of toe or knee or ankle joints
  24. What is an acute complication of DM?
    • Diabetic ketoacidosis
    • =
    • hyperglycemia (BGL>250)
    • ketonemia
    • hyperkalemia
    • metabolic acidosis
  25. What is diabetes mellitus?
    disorder of protein, carbohydrate, fat metabolism

    imbalance between insulin availability and need
  26. Type I Diabetes?
    • childhood onset
    • loss of Beta cell function
    • insulin DEFICIENT
    • thin
  27. Type II Diabetes?
    • usually adult onset
    • impaired beta cell function
    • Insulin RESISTANT
    • overweight

    increased hepatic glucose production
  28. What are the two types of Type I Diabetes?
    1A- immune mediated beta cell destruction

    1B-idiopathic-strongly inherited- common in African Americans
  29. What is hypoglycemia level?
    BGL <70
  30. Chronic complications of DM?
    • neuropathy
    • retinopathy
    • nephropathy
    • foot ulceration
    • cardiovascular
    • stroke
  31. Diabetes Insipidus?
    decreased response to ADH

    • =
    • large urine output + excessive thirst
    • (unable to concentrate their urine)
  32. What happens in Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus?
    deficit of synthesis and release of ADH

    (head injury or surgery near hypothalamohypophyseal tract)
  33. What happens in Nephrogenic DI?
    kidneys do not respond to ADH

    (genetic trait or drugs like lithium or electrolyte deficiencies)
  34. What is Addison's?
    primary adrenal insufficiency of adrenal cortical hormones

    rare
  35. which disorder requires lifelong hormone replacement and destroys all layers of the adrenal cortex?
    • Addison's
    • =
    • ACTH levels are elevated bc no feedback inhibition
  36. what are some causes of Addison's?
    • autoimmune
    • TB
    • Fungal infection
    • AIDS
    • open heart surgery
    • childbirth
    • trauma
  37. symptoms of Addisons?
    • poor tolerance to stress
    • limited ability to fight infections
    • decreased CO
    • dehydration
    • hyperkalemia
    • hyponatremia
    • salt craving
  38. Acute Renal Failure?
    • abrupt decrease in renal function
    • sufficient enough to result in retention of nitrogenous waste and disrupt fluid and electrolyte
    • homeostasis.
  39. Psychobiology
    biology dealing with relations btwn body and behavior

    • especially as shown thru nervous system
    • receptors and effectors
  40. What is Parkinson's?
    • degeneration disorder of basal ganglia =
    • tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia

    degeneration of Dopamine neuron
  41. What do we do for ARDS patient?
    • Elevate head 30+ degrees        
    • lung sounds                        ventilation
    • ABG                                   suction
    • monitor for hypoxemia         fluid/electrolyte
    • VS
    • kidney output
  42. what happens with Asthma?
    • chronic inflammatory reactive airway disease
    • airway: congested with mucus
    •             edema,
    •             smooth bronchioles constrict
    •             alveoli air trapping
  43. What is emphysema?
    • destruction of alveolar walls
    • abnormal enlargement of gas-exchange airways
    • loss of elastic recoil
    • no fibrosis

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