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Name the special and conscious somatic senses.
- SPECIAL SENSES
- CONSCIOUS SOMATIC
the body's awareness in space
define types of receptor and examples of their stimuli.
- -chemical changes
- ex. O2 and glucose levels mechanoreceptors
- -mechanical changes
- ex. pressure(baroreceptors), cell stretch (osmoreceptors), vibration, acceleration, sound
- photoreceptors photons of light
- thermoreceptors varying dregrees of heat
Define: adequate stimulus, threshold, and modality.
- adequate stimulus-a receptor has a particular form of energy that is most responsive to, but it will respond to others
- threshold-the minimum stimulus required to activate an action potential, depolarizing it.
- modality-the ability of the CNS to distinguish where a neuron starts, ends, intensity, and duration
- -receptor types have are more sensitive to particular modality of stimulus
- 1:1 receptor to sensation
Give the role of the thalamus in sensory pathways. Describe the somatosensory pathway.
- most sensory pathways travel through the thalamus before dispersing to its respective cortex except the olfactory nerve
- -fine touch, vibration, proprioceptors--> primary sensory neuron synapse to medulla--> secondary SN cross the mid line of the body and synapse to thalamus--> tertiary SN ends at the somatosensory cortex
- -course touch, temp, irritants-->Primary SN synapse in dorsal grey horn--> secondary SN cross mid line at spinal cord then goes to medulla and synapse tertiary SN-->tertiary SN ends at somatosensory cortex
compare tonic and phasic receptors, note how they adapt to stimuli.
- tonic receptors-slow to adapt but fire off fast
- -will continue to fire slow as long as the stimulus this their
- phasic receptors-are fast to fire off, but cease when the stimulus stops
Give functions and types of nociceptors
- nociceptors respond to to a variety of strong noxious stimuli that has the potential to be harmful(chemical, mechanical, thermo.)
- free nerve endings -near surface of skin and around hair root, sense temp, noxious stimuli, and hair movement
- Meissner's corpuscles
- -enclosed nerve endings with connective tissue, senses stroking and flutter
- Pacinain corpuscles -enclosed nerve endings with connective tissue, senses vibration
- ruffini corpuscles
- -enclosed nerve endings with connective tissue, senses stretch
- Merkel corpuscles -enclosed nerve endings with connective tissue, senses steady pressure and texture
Define referred and phantom pain.
Describe the pathway for the olfactory sense. How do the neurons pass on the message?
Describe the general pathway of the Gustatory sense from the location of receptors for the stimuli to where it is perceived in the brain.
Describe taste bud and its components and function.
Identify major components of the ear.
Trace sound from the ear canal to perception.
Compare regions of the inner cochlea for different pitches.
Compare types of hearing loss.
Identify the components of the vestibular apparatus and their functions.
Compare static and dynamic equilibrium, note location of receptors.
Give the function of the lacrimal apparatus.
Explain what the macula and fovea are.
Define accommodation and presbyopia.
Compare hyperopia and myopia.
Compare rods and cones. Note what each specialize s in as fas as type of light and special characteristics as mentioned in the lecture.
Describe the pathway for the sight sense from the location of receptors for the stimuli to where it is perceived in the brain.
Explain how binocular vision is achieved.