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  1. What is perception
    A process by which we organize and interpret sensory data in order to give meaning to their environment. The world we perceive is the world that’s behaviorally important
  2. What are the factors that influence perception
    • Perceiver - attitudes, interests, motives, experience, expectations
    • Situation - time, work/social setting
    • Target - novelty, motion, sound, size
  3. Attribution
    It means to attribute (assign) responsibility for a particular incident.

    It’s the name of the model we use to determine whether someone is to blame for a particular incident
  4. What is the fundamental attribution error
    Failure to adequately take external factors into account when assessing others
  5. What is the self-serving bias
    Failure to adequately take internal factors into account for ourselves
  6. What are the criteria we use to determine internal vs. external causes
    Consensus – everyone does the same thing

    Consistency – individual always does same thing in this situation.

    Distinctiveness – individual behaves differently in different situations
  7. Shortcuts we use for judging others
    Contrast effect - We don’t evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered

    Halo effect - draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic

    Selective perception – Any characteristic that makes a person, an object, or an event stand out will increase the probability we will perceive it. (remember the gorilla)

    Stereotyping - When we judge someone on the basis of our perceptionof the group to which he or she belongs
  8. How do these shortcuts come into play in the organization
    Interview – we form impressions of others within a tenth of a second, based on our first glance (halo, contrast)

    Performance expectations - self-fulfilling prophecy, If a manager expects big things from her people, they’re not likelyto let her down. Similarly, if she expects only minimal performance, they’ll likely meet those low expectations

    Performance evaluation – halo, selective perception
  9. What is the difference between rational decision-making, bounded rational decision making and intuitive decision making?
    Rational – evaluate all options, find “optimal” solution

    Bounded – use heuristics

    Intuitive – gut, based on experience
  10. What does “satisfice” mean

  11. Common Biases - Overconfidence
    inflated self-evaluation
  12. Common Biases - Anchoring
    tendency to fixate on external cues
  13. Common Biases - Confirmation
    ignore info which does confirm our hypothesis
  14. Common Biases - Availability
    make judgments based on recent, easy to access info.
  15. Common Biases - Escalation of commitment
    Tendency to continue supporting previously supportedcourses of action, even if they’re ineffective
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