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What is perception
A process by which we organize and interpret sensory data in order to give meaning to their environment. The world we perceive is the world that’s behaviorally important
What are the factors that influence perception
- Perceiver - attitudes, interests, motives, experience, expectations
- Situation - time, work/social setting
- Target - novelty, motion, sound, size
It means to attribute (assign) responsibility for a particular incident.
It’s the name of the model we use to determine whether someone is to blame for a particular incident
What is the fundamental attribution error
Failure to adequately take external factors into account when assessing others
What is the self-serving bias
Failure to adequately take internal factors into account for ourselves
What are the criteria we use to determine internal vs. external causes
Consensus – everyone does the same thing
Consistency – individual always does same thing in this situation.
Distinctiveness – individual behaves differently in different situations
Shortcuts we use for judging others
Contrast effect - We don’t evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered
Halo effect - draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Selective perception – Any characteristic that makes a person, an object, or an event stand out will increase the probability we will perceive it. (remember the gorilla)
Stereotyping - When we judge someone on the basis of our perceptionof the group to which he or she belongs
How do these shortcuts come into play in the organization
Interview – we form impressions of others within a tenth of a second, based on our first glance (halo, contrast)
Performance expectations - self-fulfilling prophecy, If a manager expects big things from her people, they’re not likelyto let her down. Similarly, if she expects only minimal performance, they’ll likely meet those low expectations
Performance evaluation – halo, selective perception
What is the difference between rational decision-making, bounded rational decision making and intuitive decision making?
Rational – evaluate all options, find “optimal” solution
Bounded – use heuristics
Intuitive – gut, based on experience
What does “satisfice” mean
Common Biases - Overconfidence
Common Biases - Anchoring
tendency to fixate on external cues
Common Biases - Confirmation
ignore info which does confirm our hypothesis
Common Biases - Availability
make judgments based on recent, easy to access info.
Common Biases - Escalation of commitment
Tendency to continue supporting previously supportedcourses of action, even if they’re ineffective