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this nitrogenous base is found only in DNA and not DNA and RNA both.
what is the difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide?
a nucleoside lacks a phosphate group whereas a nucleotide does not.
duplex B-form DNA is: (three things)
- a polymer with right handed helical structure
- stabilized by base pairing
- condensed and compact into eukaryotic cells by the binding of histones to form nucleosomes
in chromosome mapping in bacteria by the method of interrupting mating:
genes from the donor cell are transferred in a linear order to the recipient cell
the negative supercoiling of a duplex circular DNA molecule can occur: (3 things)
- by a change in twist or writhe, or both twist and writhe
- by the breakage and rejoining of DNA
- by altering the linking number of that DNA
what are some major types of RNA that exist in cells?
- transfer RNA
- messenger RNA
- ribosomal RNA
in regards to DNA and RNA which statements are true?
1. RNA is resistant to dilute acid
2. DNA is depurinated by dilute base
3. RNA is hydrolyzed by dilute base
4. DNA can be degraded enzymatically
1, 2, and 3 are true
this duplex nucleic acid has a left-handed helical rotation sense.
one of these proteins binds to single-stranded DNA, then searches for regions in duplex DNA that are homologous in sequence to the single-stranded DNA bound by this protein.
both of these proteins promote branch migration of a holliday junction. a helicase activity is involved
both of these proteins have nuclease activity (the ability to cleave or degrade DNA).
DNA polymerase I, RuvC
what compound is not described by the molecular formula (CH2O)n
what is the key structural difference between amylopectin and glycogen?
both structures contain alpha 1-->6 branch proteins, but glycogen contains a higher density of branch points
draw the fischer projection of D-galactose
is six C in a row at top has H and double bond to O, left side goes H, OH, OH, H right side goes OH, H, H, OH, and bottom carbon has H2OH
know that when you switch from fischer to Haworth projections you switch the position of the OH group that to O bonds to okay?
glucose is a reducing sugar, meaning that it can react with a particular reagent containing Cu(II) to yield an insoluble Cu(I) species. in this reaction, the initial product formed from glucose is a(n)
a glycosphingolipid containing three or more sugar units including a salic acid is a:
what does a diterpene look like?
non-aromatic ring with a single double bond on the right side, on the top, two CH3 groups on the top carbon, ortho to that is the group 9 carbons with a double bond every other starting with the second from the OH end and a CH3 group on the 3 and 7 carbons counting from the OH carbon. and meta to the top carbon is another CH3 group
what does linolenic look like?
9 and 12 carbons have double bonds, 18 carbons long
what are some structural features of a typical membrane glycerophospholipid? (3 things)
- a unit of glycerol
- a head group such as phosphochlorine or phosphorylethanolamine
- an overall amphipathic character
compartmentalization of metabolism into organelles is characteristic of which organisms?
animals, fungi, plants
what is true about anabolic metabolism and catabolic metabolism, in the broad scheme of things.
anabolic metabolism refers to reactions that make complex molecules, catabolic metabolism are the reactions that break down complex molecules
the two products of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase reaction are examples of:
what are intermediates in the glycolytic conversion of glucose to pyruvate? (5)
given that phosphofructokinase catalyzes the commitment step of glycolysis what might be an allosteric inhibitor of it?
under anaerobic conditions, fermentation allows for:
the regeneration of NAD+ from NADH
there are 3 reactions in the glycolytic conversion of glucose to pyruvate with highly negative free energy charges. the free energy of the most downstream of these is derived from the degradation of which high energy compound?
which coenzymes or vitamins are used in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction? (5)
- pantothenic acid
- thiamine (B1)
- lipoic acid
how many carbons of a glucose molecule are released in the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction?
what is true about the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxylase
they replenish the TCA cycle when TCA intermediates are used for amino acid synthesis
what is true about the Q-cycle in mitochondria? (3)
- it occurs in the inner membrane
- it allows passage of two electrons to complex III and translocates four protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space
- ubiquinone is reduced in two steps to ubiquinol
how does ATP get from the mitochondria to the cytosol?
an antiporter that exchanges ADP for ATP but uses up some of the proton motive force.
why did people think that dinitrophenol might help them lose weight?
it can cross membranes in its protonated state then take up a proton on the other side reducing the proton motive force
how many protons are transported for every NADH molecule produced in the TCA cycle?