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What is chemistry?
The study of interaction between atoms and molecules
What is an atom? What do the form?
The SMALLEST unit of matter that enters into chemical reactions.
Atoms interact to form molecules
3 components of an Atom and their role
- Protons - Make up part of nucleus; (+)
- Neutrons - Make up part of nucleus; 0 charge
- Electrons - Float around nucleus; (-); electron shells
The number of proton in an atom
Number of protons cannot change without changing element
The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
An element with a different number of neutrons
An atom can never gain or lose
Atoms can gain/lose
ONLY lose excess neutrons
- Regions corresponding to different energy levels.
- Inner shell holds 2 electrons, electrons in 2/3 shell hold 8
- outer shells (4+) contain 16 electrons
The arrangement of electron shells is also called
Electrons are arranged in electron shells corresponding to different energy levels
How atoms form molecules
Atoms combine to complete the outermost shelll
Atoms are stable when valence is full
Number of missing or extra electrons in outermost shell
What is an ionic bond
An attraction between ions of opposite charge that holds them together to form a stable molecule
An atom with a positive or negative charge
Ionic bonds are common in what type of molecule?
Compounds that usually dissolve easily in water
Ionically formed compounds (electrolytes)
What is a Covalent Bond
Covalent bonds from when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
(H-H) single covalent bond; (H=H) double covalent bond ect.
what is a Hydrogen Bond
Weak attraction between slightly positive H atom and slightly negative (O, N) atom
Characteristics of H-bonds
- Easily broken by temperature or pH
- Common between H20 molecules, amino acids, nucleic acids
- Results in 3-D shape of proteins
What causes capillary action?
Adhesion due to H-Bonding between water molecules and glass
What is Molecular weight?
The sum of the atomic weights in a molecule
What is one mole?
Molecular weight in grams
What is a chemical reaction?
Making or breaking of bonds between atoms
What is chemical energy?
Its energy that occurs during a chemical reaction
Reactions that absorb energy
Reactions that release energy
What is anabolism?
The synthesis of molecules in a cell
Forms bonds and requires energy
What is catabolism?
The decomposition reactions in a cell
Breaks apart bonds, and releases energy
Combination of synthesis and decomposition
NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H20
- Can readily go in either direction
- Each direction may need special conditions
- A+B -> AB (water)
- AB -> A+B (heat)
Two types of Redox Reactions
Essential to biochemical processes
- Oxidation - Releases electrons
- Reduction- Causes atoms to receive elections
What is an organic compound?
Always contain carbon and hydrogen
What is an Inorganic compound
A compound that typically lacks carbon
Oxygen has a slightly negative charge and hydrogen has a slightly positive charge
Symbol for Glucose and Maltose
Glucose - C6H12O6
Maltose - C12H22O11
What is an acid?
- Substances that release H+ in a solution
- pH < 7
What is a base?
- Any compound that releases OH- in a solution
- pH > 7
- Ionic compunds
- Dissociate in H2O
- Dont release H+ or OH-
- Act as electrolytes
What is pH?
Power of hydrogen
What is the best pH for organisms to grow?
Most organisms grow best between pH 6.5 and 8.5
What is a carbon skeleton?
- The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule
- H H
- | |
- H - C - C -
- | |
- H H
Responsible for most of the chemical properties of a particular organic compund
Are polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules
How do monomers join?
By dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions
What is a carbohydrate?
- Cell structures and primary energy cource
- Consist of C, H, and O with the formula (CH2O)
Simple sugars with 3-7 carbon atoms
Formed when 2 monosaccharides are joined in dehydration synthesis
Can be broken down by hydrolysis
Consist of 2-20 monosaccharides
Consist of tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis
- Essential components of cell membranes
- Consist of C,H, and O
- Nonpolar and insoluble in water
Other name for simple lipids
Fats or triglycerides
How are simple lipids formed?
Formed by dehydration synthesis with glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Type of lipids saturated in with Hydrogen and contain no double bonds
Type of fat that contain double bonds and fatty acids
Hold DNA helix by h-bonds
DNA and its bonds
- Deoxyribonucleic acid
- Has deoxyribose
- Exists as a double helix
- Code for proteins
- A binds with T
- G binds with C
RNA and its bonding
- Ribonucleic acid
- Has ribose
- Singel stranded
- Role in protein synthesis
- A bonds with U
- C bonds with G
- Adenosine triphosphate
- -3 phosphate groups
- Made by dehydration synthesis
- Broken by hydrolysis to liberate useful energy