Micro - Chemistry (Ch 2)

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Micro - Chemistry (Ch 2)
2014-02-24 19:02:18
Chemistry microbiology
Microbiology - Chapter 2 - Chemistry
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  1. What is chemistry?
    The study of interaction between atoms and molecules
  2. What is an atom? What do the form?
    The SMALLEST unit of matter that enters into chemical reactions.

    Atoms interact to form molecules
  3. 3 components of an Atom and their role
    • Protons - Make up part of nucleus; (+)
    • Neutrons - Make up part of nucleus; 0 charge
    • Electrons - Float around nucleus; (-); electron shells
  4. Atomic Number
    The number of proton in an atom

    Number of protons cannot change without changing element 
  5. Mass number
    The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
  6. Isotopes
    An element with a different number of neutrons
  7. An atom can never gain or lose
  8. Atoms can gain/lose

    ONLY lose excess neutrons
  9. Electron Shells
    • Regions corresponding to different energy levels.
    • Inner shell holds 2 electrons, electrons in 2/3 shell hold 8
    • outer shells (4+) contain 16 electrons
  10. The arrangement of electron shells is also called
    Electron configuration
  11. Electronic Shell
    Electrons are arranged in electron shells corresponding to different energy levels
  12. How atoms form molecules
    Atoms combine to complete the outermost shelll

    Atoms are stable when valence is full
  13. Valence
    Number of missing or extra electrons in outermost shell
  14. Three types of bonds
    • Ionic 
    • Covalent
    • Hydrogen
  15. What is an ionic bond
    An attraction between ions of opposite charge that holds them together to form a stable molecule
  16. Ion
    An atom with a positive or negative charge
  17. Ionic bonds are common in what type of molecule?
    Inorganic molecules
  18. Compounds that usually dissolve easily in water
    Ionically formed compounds (electrolytes)
  19. What is a Covalent Bond
    Covalent bonds from when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.

    (H-H) single covalent bond; (H=H) double covalent bond ect.
  20. what is a Hydrogen Bond
    Weak attraction between slightly positive H atom and slightly negative (O, N) atom
  21. Characteristics of H-bonds
    • Easily broken by temperature or pH
    • Common between H20 molecules, amino acids, nucleic acids
    • Results in 3-D shape of proteins
  22. What causes capillary action?
    Adhesion due to H-Bonding between water molecules and glass
  23. What is Molecular weight?
    The sum of the atomic weights in a molecule
  24. What is one mole?
    Molecular weight in grams
  25. What is a chemical reaction?
    Making or breaking of bonds between atoms
  26. What is chemical energy?
    Its energy that occurs during a chemical reaction
  27. Endergonic
    Reactions that absorb energy
  28. Exergonic
    Reactions that release energy
  29. What is anabolism?
    The synthesis of molecules in a cell

    Forms bonds and requires energy
  30. What is catabolism?
    The decomposition reactions in a cell 

    Breaks apart bonds, and releases energy
  31. Exchange Reaction
    Combination of synthesis and decomposition

    NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H20
  32. Reversible reactions
    • Can readily go in either direction
    • Each direction may need special conditions

    • A+B -> AB (water)
    • AB -> A+B (heat)
  33. Two types of Redox Reactions
    • Oxidation - Releases electrons
    • Reduction- Causes atoms to receive elections

    Essential to biochemical processes 
  34. What is an organic compound?
    Always contain carbon and hydrogen
  35. What is an Inorganic compound
    A compound that typically lacks carbon
  36. Polar molecule

    Oxygen has a slightly negative charge and hydrogen has a slightly positive charge
  37. Symbol for Glucose and Maltose
    Glucose - C6H12O6

    Maltose - C12H22O11
  38. What is an acid?
    • Substances that release H+ in a solution
    • pH < 7
  39. What is a base?
    • Any compound that releases OH- in a solution 
    • pH > 7
  40. Salts
    • Ionic compunds
    • Dissociate in H2O
    • Dont release H+ or OH-
    • Act as electrolytes
  41. What is pH?
    Power of hydrogen
  42. What is the best pH for organisms to grow?
    Most organisms grow best between pH 6.5 and 8.5
  43. What is a carbon skeleton?
    • The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule
    •      H   H
    •      |    |
    • H - C - C -
    •      |    |
    •      H   H
  44. Functional Groups
    Responsible for most of the chemical properties of a particular organic compund
  45. Macromolecules
    Are polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules
  46. Polymers
    Smaller molecules
  47. How do monomers join?
    By dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions
  48. What is a carbohydrate?
    • Cell structures and primary energy cource
    • Consist of C, H, and O with the formula (CH2O)
  49. Monosaccharides
    Simple sugars with 3-7 carbon atoms
  50. Disaccharides
    Formed when 2 monosaccharides are joined in dehydration synthesis 

    Can be broken down by hydrolysis
  51. Oligosaccharides
    Consist of 2-20 monosaccharides
  52. Polysaccharides
    Consist of tens or hundreds of monosaccharides  joined through dehydration synthesis
  53. Lipids
    • Essential components of cell membranes 
    • Consist of C,H, and O
    • Nonpolar and insoluble in water
  54. Other name for simple lipids
    Fats or triglycerides
  55. How are simple lipids formed?
    Formed by dehydration synthesis with glycerol and 3 fatty acids
  56. Type of lipids saturated in with Hydrogen and contain no double bonds
    Saturated fats
  57. Type of fat that contain double bonds and fatty acids
    Unsaturated fats
  58. Nitrogen bases
    Hold DNA helix by h-bonds
  59. DNA and its bonds
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • Has deoxyribose 
    • Exists as a double helix 
    • Code for proteins
    • A binds with T
    • G binds with C
  60. RNA and its bonding
    • Ribonucleic acid
    • Has ribose
    • Singel stranded 
    • Role in protein synthesis

    • A bonds with U
    • C bonds with G
  61. ATP
    • Adenosine triphosphate 
    • -Ribose
    • -Adenine
    • -3 phosphate groups
    • Made by dehydration synthesis 
    • Broken by hydrolysis to liberate useful energy