Chapter 8: The Joints

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Morgan_001
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263379
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Chapter 8: The Joints
Updated:
2014-03-03 19:11:55
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joints
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A&P chapter 8 joints
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  1. What is an articulation?
    site where 2 or more bones meet
  2. Each joint reflects a compromise between:
    • need for strength
    • need for mobility
  3. How are joints classified?
    structure and function
  4. How are joints structurally classified?
    • material binding bones together 
    • anatomical organization
    • shape of joint surface
  5. How are joints functionally classified?
    • range of motion
    • amount of movement allowed
  6. What are the 3 functional classifications of movement?
    • synarthroses 
    • amphiarthroses 
    • diarthroses
  7. synarthroses
    very tightly held together
  8. What are the 4 major types of immoveable joints?
    • 1. suture
    • 2. gomphosis 
    • 3. synchondrosis 
    • 4. syntosis
  9. Where can you find a suture joint?
    skull
  10. Where can you find a gomphosis joint?
    teeth and jaws
  11. Where can you find a synchondrosis joint?
    held by cartilage
  12. What are syntosis joints?
    joints that have become ossified
  13. amphiarthroses joints
    slightly moveable
  14. What are the 2 major types of amphiarthroses joints?
    • 1. syndesmosis 
    • 2. symphysis
  15. syndesmosis
    bones connected by ligaments
  16. symphysis
    bone separated by fibrocartilage wedge or pad (pubic symphysis)
  17. diarthrosis
    • freely moveable joints 
    • surrounded by joint capsule 
    • movement throughout joint
  18. Fibrous joints
    joined by fibrous tissue
  19. What are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
    • 1. sutures
    • 2. syndesmoses 
    • 3. gomphoses
  20. Cartilaginous joints
    • joined by cartilage 
    • lack joint cavity
    • not highly moveable
  21. What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
    • 1. synchondroses - held by hyaline 
    • 2. symphyses- held by fibrocartilage and some hyaline
  22. synovial joints
    articulating bones separated by fluid- containing joint cavity
  23. 6 general structures of synovial joints
    • 1. articular cartilage 
    • 2. joint cavity
    • 3. articular capsule 
    • 4. synovial fluid 
    • 5. reinforcing ligaments 
    • 6. nerves and blood vessels
  24. What type of cartilage makes up articular cartilages?
    hyaline
  25. What are some characteristics of synovial fluid?
    clear, thick, viscous like egg whites
  26. What are 3 primary functions of synovial fluid?
    • 1. lubrication 
    • 2. nutrient distribution 
    • 3. shock absorption
  27. Where can you find fat pads?
    in or around synovial
  28. cartilage pads
    • between opposing articular surfaces
    • meniscus or articular discs 
    • pads of fibrocartilage between surfaces 
    • subdivides synovial cavity
    • channel flow of synovial fluid 
    • allow for variation in shape of articular surfaces
  29. What is the purpose of fat pads?
    • protect articular cartilages
    • act as packing material for joint
  30. Functions of ligaments
    support, strengthen, and reinforce synovial joints
  31. What is a sprain?
    tearing of collagen fibers in ligament by stretching
  32. What do ligaments connect?
    bone to bone
  33. What do tendons connect?
    bone to muscle
  34. Purpose of tendon
    not part of joint itself but provide support
  35. Bursae
    • fluid filled pockets in connective tissue
    • contain synovial fluid 
    • lined by synovial membrane
  36. Where can you find bursae?
    where tendons and ligaments rub together
  37. luxation
    complete dislocation
  38. subluxation
    partial dislocation
  39. What are the 3 ways to move?
    • 1. gliding movement 
    • 2. angular movement 
    • 3. rotation
  40. inversion
    moving the sole of foot medially
  41. eversion
    moving the sole of foot laterally
  42. dorsiflexion
    dig heel into ground
  43. plantar flexion
    point foot or toes toward sole
  44. opposition
    thumb towards palm or fingers
  45. reposition
    moving thumb or fingers back to anatomical position
  46. protraction
    anterior motion in horizontal plane
  47. retraction
    moving back to anatomical position after anterior motion in horizontal plane
  48. elevation
    movement in superior direction
  49. depression
    movement back after movement in superior direction
  50. lateral flexion
    vertebral column bends to the side
  51. Which structural joint class:
    bone ends/parts united by collagen fibers 
    is immobile to slightly mobile
    fibrous
  52. Which structural joint class:
    bone ends/parts united by cartilage 
    immobile to slightly movable
    cartilaginous
  53. Which structural joint class:
    bone ends/parts covered with articular cartilage and enclosed within an articular capsule lined with synovial membrane 
    freely movable
    synovial
  54. What are the 4 muscles of the rotator cuff?
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus 
    • teres minor 
    • subscapularis

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