A&P Chapter 2

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A&P Chapter 2
2009-12-09 10:52:43
Anatomy and Physiology

Basic chemistry
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  1. What is energy?
    The capacity to do work
  2. What four elements make up 96% of the body?
    • Carbon
    • Oxygen
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
  3. What is the atomic number?
    the number of protons in an atoms nucleus
  4. What is a mass number?
    the sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons of an atom
  5. What are isotopes?
    • Have the same number of protons and electrons but differ in the number of neutrons.
    • C-14 or 14C
  6. What is atomic weight?
    Is an average of the relative weights of all the isotopes of an element, taking into account their relative abundance in nature
  7. What is radio activity?
    • the process of atomic decay
    • When radioisotopes disintegrate, the element may transform to a different element.
  8. What are the three types of mixtures?
    • Solutions: mineral water
    • Colloids: jello
    • Suspensions: blood
  9. What is avogadro's number?
    6.02 X 1023 and it is the number of particles in one mole
  10. Electron potential energy
    The further the electron is from the nucleus the greater the potential energy and the more likely it is to interact chemically with other atoms.
  11. What are electronegative atoms
    • Are typically small atoms that are electron hungary and will tend to attract electrons very strongly.
    • They tend to be atoms with 6 or 7 valence shell electrons.
  12. Describe hydrogen bonds
    • Form when a hydrogen atom, already covalently linked to one electronegative atom (usually nitrogen or oxygen), is attracted by another electron hungry atom, so that a "bridge" forms between them.
    • Too weak of a bond to bind atoms together to form molecules, however are important intramolecular bonds.
  13. Define anabolic and catabolic reactions.
    • Anabolic: synthesis reactions that are the basis of constructive activities with in cells
    • Catabolic: Decomposition reactions that are degradative processes in body cells.
  14. Define oxidized
    • The reactant that is losing the electrons and it is also referred to as the electron donor
    • Usually by the loss of hydrogen or addition of oxygen
  15. Define reduced
    The reactant taking up the transferred electrons
  16. What are exergonic reactions
    • Reactions that release energy
    • Yield products with less energy than there reactants.
    • Catabolic and oxidative reactions are examples
  17. What are some factors that may influence the rates of chemical reactions?
    • Temperature: increase in temperature is also an increase in kinetic energy
    • Concentration: higher probability of interaction
    • Particle size: smaller particles will tend to move faster and collide more frequently
    • Catalysts: increase the rate of chemical reactions
  18. Why is water so important?
    • 1. High heat capacity: prevents sudden changes in body temperatures caused by external factors
    • 2. High heat of vaporization: beneficial when we sweat
    • 3. Polar solvent properties: enable nutrients, respiratory gases, and metabolic wastes to dissolve in blood to be carried through out the body or excreted
    • 4. Reactivity: food is digested by hydrolysis reactions (breakdown of food by addition of water)
    • 6. Cushioning: forms a resilient cushion around certain body organs and helps to protect from physical trauma
  19. What are electrolytes?
    • Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution
    • Ions
  20. Name two compounds that contain carbon and are not considered to be organic.
    • CO2
    • CO
  21. Name the monomers of carbohydrates
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
    • Deoxyribose
    • Ribose
  22. What are the 3 major disaccharide's?
    • Sucrose: Glucose and Fructose
    • Maltose: Glucose and Glucose
    • Lactose: Galactose and Glucose
  23. What forms a triglyceride?
    • Fatty acids and glycerol in a 3:1 ratio
    • Glycerol: 3 carbon molecule with only hydrogen and one alcohol group bonded to each carbon
  24. What is unsaturated fat?
    • Considered heart healthy fat
    • More branches of the fat chain
    • Typical of plant lipids
  25. How do amino acids differ?
    All amino acids are identical with the exception of their 'R' group
  26. What is the primary structure of a protein?
    The sequence of amino acids that forms the polypeptide chain
  27. What is the secondary structure of a protein?
    the primary that has formed spirals (alpha helices) and sheets (beta sheets)
  28. What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
    Superimposed on secondary structure. Alpha helices and/or beta sheets are folded up to form a compact globular molecule held together by intramolecular bonds.
  29. What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
    • Two or more polypeptide chains, each with its own tertiary structure
    • A functional protein
  30. What are globular proteins?
    • Compact spherical proteins that have at least tertiary structure.
    • Water soluble
    • Chemically active
    • play crucial roles in virtually all biological processes
    • Referred to as the functional protein
  31. What is a fibrous protein?
    • Referred to as structural proteins
    • are extended and strandlike
    • Insoluble in water and are very stable
    • form a strong rope like structure
  32. What is meant by the denaturing of a protein?
    When the protein begins to uncoil and lose their specific three dimensional shape
  33. What is a coenzyme?
    A cofactor derived from vitamins
  34. What are the differences between purines and pyrimidines?
    • Purines: Adenine (forms double bonds) and Guanine (forms triple bonds)
    • Pyrimidines: Thymine (forms double bonds in DNA), Uracil (forms double bonds in RNA), and Cytosine (forms triple bonds)
  35. What is ATP?
    • Adenosine triphosphate
    • The primary energy transferring molecule in cells and it provides a form of energy that is immediately usable by all body cells