Evolution 4- species

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Evolution 4- species
2014-02-23 09:02:57
biological evolution

biological evolutin with an emphasis on speciation
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  1. population whose members can interbreed  in nature to produce viable, fertile offspring with each other, but not with members of other populations
    biological species concept
  2. defining species by measurable anatomical criteria
    morphological species concept
  3. based on morpholgical differences known only from the fossil record
    paleontological species concept
  4. defining species in terms of ecological roles
    ecological species concept
  5. a set of organisms with a unique genetic history- that is, as one branch on the tree of life
    phylogenetic species concept
  6. what type of bird was hybridized
  7. accumulation of heritable changes alters the typical phenotype for the species over generations
  8. branching evolution leads to new species
  9. evolutionary adaptations that prevent hybridiation before fertilization
    prezygotic barriers
  10. biological accidents that can result in decreased or zero fitness
    postzygotic barriers
  11. Examples of prezygotic barriers
    habitat, temporal, behavioral, mechanical, gametic isolation
  12. examples of postzygotic barries
    reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid  breakdown
  13. Different habitats minimize contact
    habitat isolation
  14. active at different times of day,year, breeding season
    temporal isolation
  15. distinct body color and courtship display can prevent hybridization
    behavioral isolation
  16. structural differences in genitalia may prevent accidental sperm transfer(plants,insects,spiders)
    mechanical isolation
  17. inability of sperm to fuse with ovum of other species (chemical barrier in sea urchins)
    gametic isolation
  18. Hybrid offspring does not develop properly
    reduced hybrid viability
  19. offspring may be healthy but cannot reproduce as easily as their parents
    reduced hybrid fertility (mule)
  20. future generation are less viable
    hybrid breakdown
  21. ancestral population segregated by geographic barrier (divided into two or more geographically isolated populations)
    allopatric specaiation
  22. radical change in genome of subpopulation reproductively isolates in from the parent population
    sympatric speciation
  23. Describe the paleozoic period
    251 million years ago, when the earths crust was in its pangaea form
  24. Describe the mesozoic period
    135 myo, was the period after pangaea and the crust was in two pieces: laurasia, gondwana
  25. Describe the cenozoic period
    65.5 myo, the period before the earths current form. North america, south america, antarctica, australia, india, madagascar, africa, eurasia,
  26. emergency of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment that presents a diversity of new opprotunities and problems
    adaptive radiaiton
  27. Mutational change (meiotic failure resulting in diploid gametes) may produce an offspring with more than two sets of chromosomes, all derived from a single species
  28. variation in the relative rates of growth of various parts of the body, which helps shape the organism
    allometric growth (chimp/human fetus skull size to adult size)
  29. evolutionary change in the timing or rate of an organism's development
  30. control overall body plan by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells
    homeotic genes
  31. retention of juvenile characteristics in a mature organism