Art History II Exam 1A

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Art History II Exam 1A
2014-02-23 14:43:44
Art History II

Art History II
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  1. Flying Buttress
    Architectural crutches to stabilize the masonry.
  2. Early Middle Ages Style
    • 400 - 1050
    • Collapse of Western Roman Empire and a break from classical Rome and Greece
    • Hinged Clasp from Sutton Hoo Burial Ship, Anonymous, c. 615-625
    • - Burial site in England probably from a king
    • - Made of gold and enamel, so knowledge of metal working was needed
    • - Found among other pagan-stylized animal imagery objects
    • Sutton Hoo Purse Cover, Anonymous, c. 615-625
    • Worn on body, strapped to waist and found with gold coins nearby, would have been cloth pouch attached. 
    • Figurative characters (duck, bird, human-like creature, etc) imagery.
    • Page (with Man) from Gospel Book of Durrow, Anonymous, c. 675 
    • Manuscript Illumination 
    • Figure is St. Matthew 
    • Made on parchment
  3. Parchment
    A stiff and thin material made from the skin of animal and used as a writing surface in medieval times.
  4. Manuscript Illumination
    A significant, decorative design placed in a gospel book made by a monk in a monastery.
  5. St. Patrick
    Patron Saint of Ireland
  6. Evangelists
    • Matthew
    • Mark 
    • Luke
    • John
  7. What is St. Matthew's symbol?
    • Man or Angel 
  8. What is St. Mark's symbol?
    • The Lion 
  9. What is St. Luke's symbol?
    • The Ox 
  10. What is St. John's symbol?
    • The Eagle 
    • Carpet Page from Lindisfarne Gospels, Anonymous, c. 715-720 
    • Lindisfarne was an Irish monastery on coast of England 
    • Made of Vellum 
    • Example of Horror vacui
  11. Vellum
    A fine parchment made from calf skin.
  12. Horror Vacui
    The filling of the entire surface of a space or an artwork with detail.
    • Chi Rho Iota page from Book of Kells, Anonymous, late 8th or early 9th century
    • The three Greek letters of Christ's name
    • Cats stalking mice, mice were significant pests in monasteries, cats were guardians to the spirit world.
    • Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures (outer cover), Anonymous, c. 870-880
    • In 1500's, cover put on another book, the Lindau Gospel
    • Strong sense of horror vacui and symmetry, as well as repoussé.
  13. Repoussé
    Metal-working technique where the design is hammered into the metal rather than cast.
    • Interior view of Palace Chapel of Charlemagne at Aachen, Odo of Metz, c. 792-805 
    • The plan and decoration of the building combines elements of Classical, Byzantine and Pre-Romanesque, and opulent materials as the expression of a new royal house, ruled by Charlemagne.
    • The building is a centrally planned, domed chapel.
    • Page with St. Matthew, Ebbo Gospels, Anonymous, 825-835
    • - The illustration has its roots in late classical painting. Landscape is represented in the illusionistic style of late classical painting.
    • - Greek artists fleeing the Byzantine iconoclasm of the 8th century brought this style to Aachen and Reims
  14. Page with St. Mark, Ebbo Gospels, Anonymous, c. 825-835
    • Gero Crucifix, Anonymous, c. 970
    • Commissioned by Arch Bishop Gero 
    • Painted wood, container for communion wafers so it would not interfere with iconoclastic controversy.
  15. Iconoclastic Controversy
    • c. 726-843
    • A dispute over the use of religious images (icons) in the Byzantine Empire.
    • Doors of Bishop Bernward, Anonymous, c. 1015
    • 16 ft 6 in high, cast in bronze 
    • Made of 2 panels, each having 8 relief images 
    • Left: Old Testament (Creation -> Cain vs. Abel) 
    • Right: New Testament (Annunciation -> Resurrection) 
    • Meant to educate those who could not read, people impressed by Pantheon.
  16. Charlamagne
    • First ruler who reunites Western Europe following the collapse of Roman Empire in year 800. 
    • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor
    • Had two significant heros --> Justinian and Constantine
  17. Emperor Constantine
    • Ancient Roman Emperor 
    • first to legalize Christianity and public worship
  18. Emperor Justinian
    • Byzantine Emperor of the East
    • Defender of Christian faith and Patron of Significant Religious architecture.
  19. Romanesque Style
    • Means "Roman-looking" 
    • c. 1050 - 1200
    • Significant changes
    •      1. Universities develop 
    •      2. Increased Commerce 
    •      3. Increased Travel (Crusades and Pilgrimages)
    • The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Anonymous, c. 1078-1122
    • Pilgrimage hotspot, basilica floor plan 
    • St. James' body miraculously sailed to spot where cathedral would be built. 
    • Closer than the Holy Land for many people in Europe and Spain.
  20. St. James
    • 1st Apostle killed after Jesus' death and resurrection 
    • After the resurrection, St. James made an unsuccessful pilgrimage to Spain to convert pagans
    • King Herod had St. James killed and followers of St. James bought a boat with no sail or rudder.
    • Boat miraculously sailed across Mediterranean.
    • When his body was taken off the boat and placed onto a rock, the rock turned into a sarcophagus.
  21. Basilica Plan
    • Rectangular-looking like a cross 
    • Altar is located at eastern end pointing towards Jerusalem
  22. Nave
    The central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the congregation.
  23. Side Aisles
    One of the lateral aisles of the building.
  24. Ambulatory
    Walkway that goes around entire building for pilgrimages to see entire church.
  25. Transept
    Cross arm that separates the most sacred and holy part of the church from the rest of it.
  26. Apse
    Semi-circular projection where the main altar is located
  27. Tympanum
    The semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, bounded by a lintel and arch.
  28. Barrel Vault
    An architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance.
    • Reliquary Statue of Ste. Foy (Saint faith), Anonymous, 10th to 11th centuries
    • Bones and remains of martyred christian girl inside.
    • Made of gold, cyrstal and jewels using repousse technique.
  29. Holy Relic
    A preserved part of the body or possession of a saint or a venerated person.
  30. Reliquary
    A container for relics or other holy artifacts.