Physical Control

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Author:
Sypes
ID:
263476
Filename:
Physical Control
Updated:
2014-02-23 13:40:08
Tags:
Microbiology
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Description:
Microbiology- Physical Control of Microorganisms
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  1. Time required to kill all the target microbes at a specific temperature
    Thermal Death Time
  2. The temperature at which an organism is killed in 10 minutes
    Thermal Death Point
  3. Direct flame; loop in Bunsen burner; disposable materials
    Incineration
  4. Care should be taken to be sure pathogens do not escape the flame before they are killed
    Incineration
  5. Hot air oven at 160 C for 1.5 to 2 hours
    Dry heat
  6. Powders, glassware; used on materials that cannot withstand moisture
    Dry heat
  7. Penetrates more rapidly than dry heat
    Moist heat
  8. 100 C for 10 minutes will kill vegetative forms
    Boiling water
  9. Viruses & spores: 2 hours; not a very reliable method
    Boiling water
  10. Most dependable method; steam under pressure; 121 C at 15 psi for 15 mins
    Autoclave
  11. Limitations: plastic ware melts, sharp instruments become dull, some chemicals break down; Bacillus stearothermophilus used as a control
    Autoclave
  12. Fractional sterilization; steam at 100 C for 3 minutes on 3 successive days
    Tyndallization
  13. Used for liquids and heat- sensitive materials
    Tyndallization
  14. Not a method of sterilization; destroys pathogens and organisms that cause spoilage and reduces bacterial count
    Pasteurization
  15. Pasteurization is aimed at destroying
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis- TB
    • Brucella abortus- undulant fever
    • Coxiella burnetii- Q fever
  16. Device for removing microbes from a solution
    Filtration
  17. Pad of porcelain or ground glass
    Inorganic filters
  18. Use diatomaceous earth (remains of marine algae); swimming pool, aquarium filters
    Organic filters
  19. Pad of cellulose
    Membrane filters
  20. Valuable because colonies will form on pad and can be counted
    Acetate
  21. 265 nm is most destructive to bacteria (visible light: 400- 800 nm)
    Ultraviolet light
  22. Cannot penetrate solids or liquids; reduces airborne or surface contamination
    Ultraviolet light
  23. Ionizing (high energy) radiation used to sterilize vitamins, hormones, and antibiotics; break chemical bonds
    X- rays or gamma rays
  24. No specific activity against microbes other than heat generation
    Microwaves
  25. Sound waves with frequencies beyond the range of human hearing are passed through a fluid; used for fluids
    Ultrasound
  26. High frequency sound waves cause formation of bubbles or cavities. The cavities collapse and send out shock waves which destroy microbes
    Cavitation
  27. Few practical applications; geneticists split cells to study organelles, dentists use sonicare
    Cavitation

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