Introduction to the Human Body
Card Set Information
Introduction to the Human Body
Study of the structure of the body.
Study of the function of the body.
The branch of science that describes the consequences of the improper functioning of the body parts; how a body part functions when a person has a disease.
The basic units of life; the structural and functional unit of a living organism.
Groups of cells that perform a similar funtion.
Group of tissues that performs a specialized function such as the lungs & heart.
Groups of organs that perfom a particular function, such as the organs of digestion.
Consists of the skin and related structurs such as hair and nails. Forms a covering for the body, helps regulate body temperature, and contains some of the structures necessary for sensation.
Forms the basic framework of the body; protects and supports body organs.
Consists of 3 types of muscles; skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Responsible for movement of the skeleton and maintanence of body posture.
Consist of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
Consists of numerous glands that secrete hormones and chemical substances that regulate body activities such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, & water balance.
Consists of the heart and blood vessels. This system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
Consists of the lymph nodes, lymphatic vessesl, lymph, & other lymphoid organs. Plays an important role in fluid balance and in the defense of the body agains pathogens and other foreign materials.
Consist of the lungs and other structures that conduct air to and from the lungs.
Consists of organs designed to eat food, break it down into substances that can be absorbed by the body, & eliminate the waste.
Consists of the kidneys and other structures that help excrete waste products from the body through urine. Helps control the amount and composition of water and other substances in the body.
Consists of organs and structures that enable humans to reproduce.
Staying the same; the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in response to a changing external environment.
Mechanisms that help maintain homeostasis.
When homeostatic mechanisms do not work normally, the result can be disease or dysfuntion.
The body is standing erect, with the face forward, the arms at the sides, and the toes and palms of the hands directed forward.
Above another body part or closer to the head.
Ex. Head is superior to chest.
Below another part or closer to the feet.
Ex. Chest is inferior to the head.
Toward the front surface (belly surface).
Ex. Heart is anterior (ventral) to the spinal cord.
Towards the back surface.
Towards the midline of the body.
Away from the midline of the body.
The structure is nearer to the point of attachment, often the trunk of the body.
Ex. Wrist is proximal to the fingers.
The structure is farther away from the point of attachment.
Ex. Fingers are distal to the wrist.
Nearer to the surface of the body.
Ex. Skin is superficial to muscles.
Away from the surface of the body.
Ex. Bones are deep to the skin.
Closer to the center of the body.
Ex. Heart is central.
Away from the center of the body.
Ex. Blood vessels are located peripherally.
Divides the body into right and left portions.
Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions.
Divides the body horizontally, creating an upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portion of the body.
located toward the back of the body and has two divisions, the
spinal (veterbral) cavity
; these two cavities form on continuous space.
located within the skull and contains the brain.
Spinal (Vetebral) Cavity
cavity extends downward from the cranial cavity and is surrounded by bony vertebrae; it contains the spinal cord.
located toward the front of the body and has two divisions; the
located in the ventral cavity above the diaphrapm and is surrounded by the rib cage; is divided into two comparments by the
located in the thoracic cavity; contains the heart, espophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and large blood vessels attached to the heart.
located in the thoracic cavity; contains the lungs, which occupy most of the space within the thoracic cavity.
Located in the ventral cavity below the diaphram; divided into an upper (
) and lower (
located in the abdominopelvic cavity; contains the stomach, most of the intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys.