Introduction to the Human Body

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Introduction to the Human Body
2010-07-13 15:07:39


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  1. Anatomy
    Study of the structure of the body.
  2. Physiology
    Study of the function of the body.
  3. Pathophysiology
    The branch of science that describes the consequences of the improper functioning of the body parts; how a body part functions when a person has a disease.
  4. Cells
    The basic units of life; the structural and functional unit of a living organism.
  5. Tissues
    Groups of cells that perform a similar funtion.
  6. Organs
    Group of tissues that performs a specialized function such as the lungs & heart.
  7. Organ System
    Groups of organs that perfom a particular function, such as the organs of digestion.
  8. Integumentary System
    Consists of the skin and related structurs such as hair and nails. Forms a covering for the body, helps regulate body temperature, and contains some of the structures necessary for sensation.
  9. Skeletal System
    Forms the basic framework of the body; protects and supports body organs.
  10. Muscular System
    Consists of 3 types of muscles; skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Responsible for movement of the skeleton and maintanence of body posture.
  11. Nervous System
    Consist of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
  12. Endocrine System
    Consists of numerous glands that secrete hormones and chemical substances that regulate body activities such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, & water balance.
  13. Circulatory System
    Consists of the heart and blood vessels. This system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
  14. Lymphatic System
    Consists of the lymph nodes, lymphatic vessesl, lymph, & other lymphoid organs. Plays an important role in fluid balance and in the defense of the body agains pathogens and other foreign materials.
  15. Respiratory System
    Consist of the lungs and other structures that conduct air to and from the lungs.
  16. Digestive System
    Consists of organs designed to eat food, break it down into substances that can be absorbed by the body, & eliminate the waste.
  17. Urinary System
    Consists of the kidneys and other structures that help excrete waste products from the body through urine. Helps control the amount and composition of water and other substances in the body.
  18. Reproductive System
    Consists of organs and structures that enable humans to reproduce.
  19. Homeostasis
    Staying the same; the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in response to a changing external environment.
  20. Homeostatic Mechanisms
    Mechanisms that help maintain homeostasis.
  21. Homeostatic Imbalance
    When homeostatic mechanisms do not work normally, the result can be disease or dysfuntion.
  22. Anatomical Position
    The body is standing erect, with the face forward, the arms at the sides, and the toes and palms of the hands directed forward.
  23. Superior
    Above another body part or closer to the head.

    Ex. Head is superior to chest.
  24. Inferior
    Below another part or closer to the feet.

    Ex. Chest is inferior to the head.
  25. Anterior (Ventral)
    Toward the front surface (belly surface).

    Ex. Heart is anterior (ventral) to the spinal cord.
  26. Posterior (Dorsal)
    Towards the back surface.
  27. Medial
    Towards the midline of the body.
  28. Lateral
    Away from the midline of the body.
  29. Proximal
    The structure is nearer to the point of attachment, often the trunk of the body.

    Ex. Wrist is proximal to the fingers.
  30. Distal
    The structure is farther away from the point of attachment.

    Ex. Fingers are distal to the wrist.
  31. Superficial
    Nearer to the surface of the body.

    Ex. Skin is superficial to muscles.
  32. Deep
    Away from the surface of the body.

    Ex. Bones are deep to the skin.
  33. Central
    Closer to the center of the body.

    Ex. Heart is central.
  34. Peripheral
    Away from the center of the body.

    Ex. Blood vessels are located peripherally.
  35. Sagittal Plane
    Divides the body into right and left portions.
  36. Frontal (Coronal) Plane
    Divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions.
  37. Transverse Plane
    Divides the body horizontally, creating an upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portion of the body.
  38. Visera
  39. Dorsal Cavity
    located toward the back of the body and has two divisions, the cranial cavity and the spinal (veterbral) cavity; these two cavities form on continuous space.
  40. Cranial Cavity
    located within the skull and contains the brain.
  41. Spinal (Vetebral) Cavity
    cavity extends downward from the cranial cavity and is surrounded by bony vertebrae; it contains the spinal cord.
  42. Ventral Cavity
    located toward the front of the body and has two divisions; the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.
  43. Thoracic Cavity
    located in the ventral cavity above the diaphrapm and is surrounded by the rib cage; is divided into two comparments by the mediastinum and the pleural cavity.
  44. Mediastinum
    located in the thoracic cavity; contains the heart, espophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and large blood vessels attached to the heart.
  45. Pleural Cavity
    located in the thoracic cavity; contains the lungs, which occupy most of the space within the thoracic cavity.
  46. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    Located in the ventral cavity below the diaphram; divided into an upper (abdominal) and lower (pelvic) cavity.
  47. Abdominal Cavity
    located in the abdominopelvic cavity; contains the stomach, most of the intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys.
  48. Pelvic Cavity