Art History II Exam 1B

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mhirsh
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Art History II Exam 1B
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2014-02-23 16:21:05
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Art History II Exam
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    • Virgin and Child in Majesty , Anonymous,
    • 1150-1200 
    • - Devotional image from painted wood placed on altar meant to inspire prayer.
    • - If turned into a reliquary, it was more
    • acceptable due to iconoclasm.
  1. Devotional Image
    Christian images designed as aids for prayer or contemplation.
    • Bayeux Tapestry, Anonymous, c.1066-1082
    • Named after city and commissioned by Bishop Odo (brother in law of William the Conqueror) for the interior of Church in Bayeux, France. 
    • It is actually an embroidery 
    • Subject is The Battle of Hastings c.1066 when William became king of England
  2. Embroidery
    sen image with wool yarn on linen
  3. Battle of Hastings
    • c. 1066 
    • Normans vs the Saxons
    • South Portal and Porch--Christ in Majesty, Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Anonymous, c. 1115
    • Tympanum
  4. Priory Church
    A church that is associated with a monastery or convent.
  5. Cathedral Complex at Pisa
    • Made up of 4 separate detached complexes (Cathedral, Baptistry, Campanile [Bell Tower], and Walled Cemetery) 
    • At the time, Pisa was economically successful due to their access to water. They had mercenary fighters that they rented out during the crusades.
    • Decided to display their devotion to God using their new wealth
    • Cathedral of Pisa, Busketos [Master Builder], c. 1063
    • Round arches, altar facing East toward Holy Land 
    • Shows Classical art connection
    • Baptistry of Pisa, Diotisalvi, c. 1153
    • Baptismal cleansing that harks back to St. John and Jesus' baptism.
    • Also goes back to Panthenon and Roman baths (circular and domed structures).
    • Campanile (bell tower) of Pisa, Bonanno Pisano, c. 1174-1350
    • Leaning tower of Pisa 
    • Started sinking during construction
    • Had to be stabilized and if it was straightened, would have collapsed.
    • Campo Santo, Giovanni di Simone, 13th c. 
    • Walled cemetery 
    • Earth placed in walls came from Calvary Hill where Christ was crucified.
    • San Giovanni Baptistry (in Florence), Lorenzo Ghiberti, c. 1060-1150
    • In the heart of Florence 
    • You were not a true Florentine unless you were Baptized here 
    • Italian poet Dante and the Medici family were baptized here.
  6. Gothic Style
    • c. 1150-1400
    • Golden age of Cathedral architecture 
    • age of the emergence of cities as we know them, such as Paris
    • More windows to allow more light to come inside
    • Flying buttresses, stained glass windows, less masonry but more support.
    • Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, William of Sens, c. 1140-1144
    • Location of the remains of the first bishop of Paris who was martyred via beheading, as well as other kings and queens of France. 
    • Abbot Suger called for total renovation to allow more windows and light.
  7. Abbot Suger
    A theorist behind what becomes known as the Gothic style.
  8. Choir
    Area of a church that is east of the transept.
  9. Pointed arch
    An arch with a pointed crown.
  10. Stained-glass window
    Glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture.
    • Cathedral of Notre Dame at Chartres (Chartres Cathedral), Anonymous, c. 1134-1220
    • 1194 - fire damaged significant portion of church, but holy relic (cloth of Virgin Mary) remained unscathed, so they rebuilt.
    • Early Gothic - pre-fire, right tower
    • Mature Gothic - post-fire, left tower
    • Basillica Floor plan
  11. Notre Dame
    "Our Lady"
  12. Jamb
    A side post or surface of a doorway, window, or fireplace.
    • Royal Portal at Chartres Cathedral, West façade, Anonymous, c. 1145-1155
    • Abbot Suger wanted to connect the Old Testament and the New Testament traditions. 
    • Right - Madonna & Child   
    • Center - Christ in Majesty   
    • Left - Ascension of Christ
    • Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, Anonymous, c. 1163-1270's
    • Church was extensively damaged in 1790 French Revolution 
    • Religious Figures misunderstood to be actual French monarchy 
    • Extensively restored in the 1800's
    • West Façade, Cathedral of Notre Dame at Reims (Reims Cathedral), Jean d'Orbais, Jean le Loup, and Gaucher of Reims, c. 1211-1260
    • Directly influenced by Chartres Cathedral
    • Every known plant indiginous to france was incorporated into the design of the decoration
    • Rose window = Virgin Mary
    • Had sculptures of the Annunciation and the Visitation
    • Annunciation and Visitation from Reims Cathedral, Anonymous, c. 1230-1255
    • Annunciation: Left side, the angel Gabriel announces to the Virgin Mary that she is going to give birth to Christ.
    • Visitation: Right side, after she found out that she is pregnant with the Christ child, Mary visits her cousin, Elizabeth, to tell her. Elizabeth is 6 months pregnant with St. John the baptist. When Mary tells Elizabeth her news, for the first time, Elizabeth feels the baby move, showing John acknowledging Christ child.
    • Sainte-Chapelle, Anonymous, c. 1239-1248 
    • Small sanctuary space, interior is like a reliquary 
    • King Louis IX brought back relics from the crusades (crown of thorns, piece of the cross, metal tip from lance, sponge of vinegar)
  13. Holofernes' Army Crossing the Euphrates River, Anonymous, c. 1245
    • Vesperbild (Pieta), Anonymous, c. 1330
    • Yet another devotional image to inspire prayer. 
    • When Virgin Mary is holding dead Jesus 

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