HDEV 402 Weeks 3-4 Quiz

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HDEV 402 Weeks 3-4 Quiz
2014-02-23 20:05:38
Human Development Approach Personal Plane Jafari

The Human Development Approach and The Personal Plane
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  1. Psyche
    • Body (id)
    • Mind (ego)
    • Spirit (superego)
  2. Cultural psychology studies the way cultural traditions and social practices:
    • Regulate 
    • Social and emotional regulation - taught behavior of what is socially and emotionally appropriate
    • Ex: Teaching children to be quiet in public places
    • Express
    • Ex: Car accident, move to shoulder
    • Transform
    • Physical (Budding)
    • Cognitive (Hormonal changes lead to cognitive shift)
    • and Permute the human psyche
  3. Cultural Psychology is the study of...
    • Intentional worlds (a world we made up that we can change)
    • Personal functioning in a particular intentional world (made up to be; ex: have to get married and giving in)
    • Interpersonal maintenance of any intentional world (relationships change; fitting in world, try fitting in or change friends)

    • It is an interdisciplinary human science (Look at the way we live)
    • It is not general psychology
  4. Cultural Psychology believes:
    • No socio-cultural environment exists or has an identity independent of the way human beings seize meanings and resources from it
    • What we do culturally has to have meaning 
    • Ex: Have kids, who stays home? Woman

    • Every human being's subjectivity is altered through the process of seizing meanings and resources from some socio-cultural environment
    • All my view 
    • Ex: Pick child up in Europe, father picks up
  5. Socio-Cultural World is an intentional world
    • Its existence is real, factual, forceful
    • Only if a community's belief, desires, emotions, and other mental representations are directed at it
    • Intentional worlds are human's anti-factual world (Ex: Not having kids is beneficial but no one will believe it)
    • Stealing, harm, sin, promising, divorce

    • Mortality is cultural
    • Ex: Tribe where it is said that you need 2 different men to sustain pregnancy
    • Ex: Tribe in India, women every 5 years, pick up, take kids, and move; men can only sustain family for 5 years and move to someone better
  6. Cultural Beliefs are...
    • Rooted in Symbolic Inheritance - beliefs, "ideas and understandings, both implicit and explicit, about persons, society, nature and divinity"
    • Norms and moral standards that arise from these beliefs, ideas and understandings
  7. Cultural Belief and Roles
    • Gender Roles
    • Age-Related Roles
    • Social Status Roles
  8. Why during adolescence years we become increasingly aware of our cultural roles and what is expected of us?
    • Increasing cognitive capacities in adolescence (i.e., abstract thinking & self-reflection)
    • The transition to adulthood is approaching along with the need to adapt to adult role requirements
  9. Socialization is...
    • The process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of their culture
    • Socialization Outcomes ⇓
    • Self-regulation - ability to comply with social norms
    • Role preparation - for roles in work, gender, institutions such as marriage, parenthood
    • Cultivation of sources of meaning - "What's important?" "What's to be lived for?"
  10. Individualism vs. Collectivism
    • Individualism
    • Independence
    • Self-expression
    • Broad socialization
    • "Western"
    • Independent Self

    • Collectivism
    • Obedience
    • Conformity
    • Narrow socialization
    • "Eastern"
    • Interdependent Self
  11. Socialization: Broad & Narrow
    • Cultures define the range and focus of acceptable personal variation
    • Cultures differ in the degree of restrictiveness they impose
    • Narrow socialization is to collectivism as Broad socialization is to individualism
  12. Socialization: Sources
    • Peers/Friends
    • School
    • Community
    • Workplace
    • Legal System
    • Media
    • Family (Influence diminished in adolescence)
    • Cultural Belief System

    *Influence of friends, media, school, community, legal system increases
  13. What can you say about trends in broad and narrow socialization in Middletown?
    • Started off narrow and collectivist with Loyalty to church and Strict obedience at its highest
    • 50 years later, it became more broad and individualistic with Independence and Tolerance at its high
  14. Custom Complex
    Typical practice in a culture and the cultural beliefs that provide the basis for the practice
  15. The longer time in USA or Australia, the _______ the family is values as the residential unit
    The longer time in USA or Australia, the less the family is values as the residential unit
  16. Religious Beliefs are Cultural Beliefs
    • Virtually all cultures have religious beliefs of some kind
    • The content of cultures' religious beliefs is diverse
    • Typically contain prescriptions for socialization - roles, self-regulation, sources of meaning
    • Typically specify a code for behavior
  17. Industrialized countries tend to be more ________ (based on non-religious beliefs)
    Industrialized countries tend to be more secular (based on non-religious beliefs)
  18. Worldviews Approach
    • World View (Set of cultural beliefs)
    • Moral Reasoning (Explanations for why an action is right or wrong)
    • Moral Evaluation (Judgments as to whether an action is right or wrong)
    • Moral Behavior (Prescribed by Moral Judgments; reinforce world view)
  19. Worldviews Approach: 3 "Ethics"
    • Autonomy: Individual is primary moral authority having right to do as they wish as long as their behavior does no harm to others
    • Community: Responsibilities of roles in family, community are basis for moral judgments
    • Divinity: Individual is a spiritual entity subject to the prescriptions of a divine authority
  20. Political Beliefs: Adelson
    • Hypothetical Dilemma
    • "Imagine that a thousand men and women, dissatisfied with the way things are going in this country, decide to purchase and move to an island in the Pacific where they must devise laws and modes of government."
  21. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • The brain and the spinal cord
    • Command and control center for the brain system
  22. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Known to be plastic
    • Brings messages from the sense receptors to the brain and spinal cord
    • If you cut a nerve in your hand, it can regenerate and heal itself
    • However, sometimes during regeneration, the wires may get crossed (when axons reattach to the axons of the wrong neuron)
    • Causes "False localization": A touch on the index finger is felt by the thumb
  23. Parts of Neurons
    • 1. Dendrites: treelike branches
    • Receive input from other neurons

    2. Lead into cell body which contains the DNA and sustains the life of the cell

    • 3. Axon, a living cable running from a microscopic length in the brain to down to the legs and reach up to 6 feet
    • Axon do not touch the neighboring neurons, they are separated by synapse
  24. Neurons
    • Long, thin nerve cells that make up nervous system
    • A cell that specializes in receiving and transmitting information
    • Each neuron consists of: a cell body, an axon, and dendrites
    • The cell contains the basic biological machinery that keeps the neuron alive
    • Neurons' production is completed by 28 weeks after conception
  25. Axons
    • Nerve fibers that extend from neurons that send impulses 
    • The axon sends information from other dendrites
  26. Dendrites
    • Nerve fibers extending from neurons that receive impulses
    • The dendrites receives input from neurons
  27. Glial cells
    Cells that support and protect the neurons
  28. Myelin
    • Fatty sheath that is wrapped around Axons
    • The coating of the neural pathways with a fatty substance that results in more efficient processing of electrical signals
    • Myelination process continues until adolescence
  29. Neurotransmitters
    Chemicals that carry information to nearby neurons
  30. Cortex
    • Brain's outer layer
    • Location of most thinking, feeling, and sensing
  31. Synapse
    The gap between one neuron and another
  32. The corpus callosum
    Thick bundle of neurons that links the left and right hemispheres of the brain
  33. The left hemisphere of the brain
    Controls the ability to produce/understand language and logical thinking
  34. The right hemisphere of the brain
    Controls the perception of spatial relationships
  35. How the brain changes
    As we learn more, the mental machinery of the brain can improve
  36. Critical Period
    • A specific time when an event, or its absence, has the greatest impact on development
    • A critical period is a time when an organism is most likely to be influenced by a specific event
    • Ex: Rubella has a disastrous impact if it is contracted during the first trimester of a pregnancy, yet has hardly any impact if contracted later in a pregnancy
  37. Sensitive Period
    • Times in an organism's development when a particular experience (or lack of it) has a more pronounced effect on development
    • Ex: Learning a second language
  38. Learning theory - Skinner (1957)
    Observation, imitation, and reinforcement
  39. Nativism - Chomsky (1959)
    • Language acquisition device
    • Mechanism that enables the brain to infer linguistic rules from the language they hear
    • A language acquisition device is like a specialized organ for language learning
  40. Lennenberg (1967): Is there a critical period for language acquisition?
    • There is language acquisition device (LAD)
    • If past critical period, LAD won't function (8-9 years)
  41. Why is it harder to learn a second language during adulthood?
    • Due to constant use of the native language, brain is used to mapping with native tongue
    • Leaving very little space for re-mapping of the second language
  42. Competitive explains...
    why habits are difficult to break or to "unlearn"
  43. Brain problems associated with aging
    • Loss for words
    • Due to gradual decline and atrophy of the brain's attentional system and nucleus basalis
    • Have to be engaged for plastic change
    • Loss of gross motor skills
    • Loss of dexterity
    • Loss of interest in normal activities
  44. Can we re-open the critical period plasticity?
    • Learning new physical acitivities that require concentration 
    • Solving challenging puzzles
    • Changing Career challenge that require mastering new skills

    • Learn a new language
    • Engage in tasks that require close attention as they did when you were younger
    • Do mental exercises
    • Do physical exercises