Chemistry 130 Test 2 Study Guide

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Chemistry 130 Test 2 Study Guide
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  1. Define polyatomic ion.
    Ions that are themselves composed of a group of atoms with an overall charge.
  2. Acetate
    C2H3O2-
  3. carbonate
    CO32-
  4. hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate)
    HCO3-
  5. hydroxide
    OH-
  6. nitrate
    NO3-
  7. nitrite
    NO2-
  8. phosphate
    PO43-
  9. hydrogen phosphate
    HPO42-
  10. ammonium
    NH4+
  11. sulfate
    SO42-
  12. sulfite
    SO32-
  13. hydrogen sulfite (or bisulfite)
    HSO3-
  14. hydrogen sulfate (or bisulfate)
    HSO4-
  15. cyanide
    CN-
  16. True or False: Covalent compounds and Molecular compounds are not the same thing.
    False; they are formed when two non metals bond together.

    Their electrons are shared rather than transferred.
  17. How do you identify whether or a compound is molecular/covalent?
    The compound must be made up of non metals.
  18. Describe the format of naming a binary molecular compound.
    • prefix + name of 1st element
    • prefix + base name of 2nd element + -ide
  19. When writing the name of a molecular compound, as when writing the formula, the first element is the more _______.
    metal-like
  20. What is the order of listing non metal elements in a chemical formula?
    • C
    • P
    • N
    • H
    • S
    • I
    • Br
    • Cl
    • O
    • F
  21. The prefixes in a molecular compound indicate what?
    The number of atoms present in the element that is prefixed.
  22. From 1 to 10, what are the prefixes for elements in a molecular compound?
    • mono - 1
    • di - 2
    • tri - 3
    • tetra - 4
    • penta - 5
    • hexa - 6
    • hepta - 7
    • octa - 8
    • nona - 9
    • deca - 10
  23. True or False: In a molecular compound, if there is only one atom present in the first element of the formula, "mono" is omitted.
    True; CO2 is Carbon Dioxide, not Monocarbon Dioxide.
  24. True or False: In a molecular compound, if there is only one atom present in the second element of the formula, "mono" is omitted.
    False; CO is Carbon Monoxide, not Carbon Oxide.
  25. Name: N2O
    dinitrogen monoxide (laughing gas)
  26. Name: CCl4
    Carbon tetrachloride
  27. Name: BCl3
    Boron trichloride
  28. Name: SF6
    Sulfur hexafluoride
  29. Name: N2O4
    dinitrogen tetraoxide
  30. Name: NO2
    nitrogen dioxide
  31. Name: SO2
    sulfur dioxide
  32. Name: NI3
    nitrogen triiodide
  33. Name: BrF5
    bromine pentafluoride
  34. Name: NO
    nitrogen monoxide
  35. Name: N4Se4
    tetranitrogen tetraselenide
  36. What is the difference between a molecular element and an atomic element?
    • An atomic element is one that exists in nature as with a single atom as the basic unit.
    • A molecular element is one that exists in nature as a diatomic molecule as the basic unit.
  37. List the elements that occur as diatomic molecules.
    • H2
    • N2
    • O2
    • F2
    • Cl2
    • Br2
    • I2
  38. Name: Fe2S3
    iron (III) sulfide

    Sulfur has a charge of 2-.  There are 3 sulfur ions present.

    3 x (2-) = 6-

    Iron must equal 6+ to balance 6-.

    • 2 Iron ions present, so:
    • (6+) / X = 2

    x = 3+, so Iron here has a 3+ charge, thus:

    iron (III) sulfide
  39. Name: CrCl2
    chromium (II) chloride

    Chlorine has a 1- charge.  There are 2 ions present, so:

    (1-) x 2 = 2-

    Chromium needs to equate to 2+ to balance it.

    There is only 1 Chromium ion present, (no subscript), therefore Chromium has a 2+ charge, thus:

    chromium (II) chloride
  40. Name: CrCl3
    chromium (III) chloride

    Chlorine has a 1- charge.  There are 3 chlorine ions present (subscript), so:

    (1-) x 3 = 3-

    Chromium needs to equate to 3+ to balance it.  

    There is only 1 Chromium ion present, (no subscript), therefore Chromium has a 3+ charge, thus:

    chromium (III) chloride
  41. Name: SnO2
    tin (IV) oxide

    Oxygen has a 2- charge.  There are 2 oxygen ions present (subscript), so:

    (2-) x 2 = 4-

    Tin (Sn) needs to have a 4+ charge to balance it.

    There is only 1 Tin ion present, (no subscript), therefore Chromium has a 4+ charge, thus:

    tin (IV) oxide
  42. Name: PbI2
    lead (II) iodide

    Iodine has a 1- charge.  There are 2 iodine ions present (subscript), so:

    (1-) x 2 = 2-

    Lead (Pb) needs to have a 2+ charge to balance it.

    There is only 1 Lead ion present, (no subscript), therefore Lead has a 2+ charge, thus:

    lead (II) iodide
  43. Name some common metals that form more than one type of ion and their common charges.
    • Chromium Cr2+ chromium (II) chromous
    • Chromium Cr3+ chromium (III) chromic
    • Iron Fe2+ Iron (II) ferrous
    • Iron Fe3+ Iron (III) ferric
    • Cobalt Co2+ cobalt (II) cobaltous
    • Cobalt Co3+ cobalt (III) cobaltic
    • Copper Cu+ copper (I) cuprous
    • Copper Cu2+ copper (II) cupric
    • Tin Sn2+ tin (II) stannous
    • Tin Sn4+ tin (IV) stannic
    • Mercury Hg22+ mercury (I) mercurous
    • Mercury Hg2+ mercury (II) mercuric
    • Lead Pb2+ lead (II) plumbous
    • Lead Pb4+ lead (IV) plumbic
  44. What is the format of the name when naming binary ionic compounds containing a metal that forms more than one type of cation?
    1) name of cation (metal)

    2) charge of cation (metal) in roman numerals in parentheses

    3) base name of anion (nonmetal) + -ide
  45. CaO is NOT named Calcium (II) Oxide.  Why?
    calcium oxide; Calcium is a metal whose charge is invariant from one compound to another, so the charge is implied because it is always the same (2+).
  46. List metals whose charge is invariant from one compound to another and their ion (charge).
    • Li     Li+     lithium
    • Na    Na+    sodium
    • K      K+     potassium
    • Rb    Rb+    rubidium
    • Cs    Cs+    cesium
    • Mg    Mg2+  magnesium
    • Ca    Ca2+  calcium
    • Sr     Sr2+   strontium
    • Ba    Ba2+  barium
    • Al     Al3+   aluminum
    • Zn    Zn2+  zinc            *
    • Ag    Ag+    silver          *

    * the charge of these metals cannot be inferred from their group number
  47. Write a formula for the compound composed of potassium and oxygen.
    K20

    • First write the symbol for each ion along with its appropriate charge from its group number in the periodic table.
    • K+ O2-
    • Then make the magnitude of each ion's charge become the subscript for the other ion.
    • K+ O2- becomes K20

    (This is where the diagonal lines come in to play).
  48. Write a formula for the compound composed of aluminum and oxygen.
    • Al2O3
    • First write the symbol for each ion along with its appropriate charge from its group number in the periodic table.

    • Al3+ O2-
    • Then make the magnitude of each ion's charge become the subscript for the other ion.

    Al3+ O2- becomes Al2O3

    (This is where the diagonal lines come in to play).
  49. Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms from magnesium and oxygen.
    MgO

    First write the symbol for each ion along with its appropriate charge from its group number in the periodic table.

    Mg2+ O2-

    Then make the magnitude of each ion's charge come the subscript for the other ion.

    Mg2+ O2- becomes Mg2O2, but since both subscripts are the same (2) they can be reduced by dividing each one by (2).

    It reduces to Mg1O1 which is written as MgO.

    (This is where the diagonal lines come in to play).
  50. What is a tip to remember which elements are those that natural appear in nature as diatomic molecules?
    There are 7 of these elements.  

    On the periodic table, draw a 7 with the elements starting with Nitrogen and moving until Fluorine, then move down to Iodine.  This forms a 7, although only six are included.  Hydrogen is the odd-man-out all by itself in the top left corner, which is also diatomic.

    All of these together make 7 elements that are naturally diatomic.
  51. Is OsO4 an ionic or covalent/molecular compound?
    covalent/molecular.  

    Even though osmium (Os) is a metal, the charge on a cation does not exceed +3 in ionic compounds, with the possible exception that some metals of high atomic number may form +4 ions.

    So since O4 has a charge of -8, an ionic bond would require that the cation have a +8 charge.  This is impossible, thus ionic compound is ruled out.

    It is covalent/molecular.
  52. What are some characteristics of ionic compounds?
    High-melting solids (melting point of NaCl = 801oC = 1474oF) that are brittle.

    Ionic compounds often dissolve in water but not in liquids that do not mix with water, such as oils like gasoline.

    Solutions of ionic compounds in water conduct electricity.  The dry solid does NOT conduct electricity.
  53. What does the suffix -ide usually mean?
    no oxygen
  54. What do the suffixes -ite and -ate mean?
    contains oxygen
  55. Most polyatomic ions are _______, meaning they have a _______ charge.
    anions; negative
  56. What is the only common polyatomic ion that has a positive charge?
    ammonium NH4+
  57. What is a hydrate?
    In a chemical formula:

    CuSO4.5H2O  

    The hydrate is 5H2O and signifies there are exactly 5 molecules of water for every Cu2+ or SO42- ion.
  58. Covalent bonds arise from the sharing of _______ between two _______.
    electrons; nonmetals.
  59. True or False: Most covalent bonds exist as large molecules.
    false; small molecules
  60. If a metal and a nonmetal are involved in a compound, the compound is _______, NOT _______.
    ionic; covalent
  61. In the periodic table, what is another name for a row?
    period
  62. On the periodic table, what is the 4th period in group 2?
    Calcium Ca
  63. True or False: Metals conduct electricity poorly.
    False
  64. What does ductile (of a metal) mean?
    The metal is able to be drawn out into a thin wire.
  65. What does malleable (of a metal or other material) mean?
    Able to be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking.
  66. Most metals are solid at room temperature.  What is one exception?  What state is it in at room temperature?
    Mercury Hg; liquid
  67. True or False: Nonmetals are great conductors of electricity.
    False, they do not conduct electricity.
  68. List some properties of metals.
    • generally shiny
    • malleable
    • hard
    • good conductors of electricity
  69. List some properties of non-metals.
    • Do not conduct heat or electricity well
    • Typically brittle and are not easily molded into shapes
  70. List some properties of metalloids.
    • share characteristics of metals and non-metals
    • typically semiconductors (they both insulate and conduct electricity)
  71. Where are Alkali metals located on the periodic table and what charge do they always have?
    Group 1 minus Hydrogen (far left column), charge of 1+
  72. Where are Alkali earth metals located on the periodic table, and which charge do they always have?
    Group 2, second column, charge of 2+
  73. Where are Transition Metals located on the periodic table, and what charge do they usually have?
    Groups 3-12, last element on period 7 is Meitnerium Mt atomic number 109.

    Charges usually vary, revealed by anions in the compound.
  74. Where are Halogens located on the periodic table and what charge do they always have?
    Group 17, second from right, charge is always 1-
  75. Where are Noble Gases located on the periodic table and what charge do they always have?
    Group 18, right-most, they are all charge neutral (no charge).  Protons and electrons are balanced.
  76. Where are Lanthanide elements located on the periodic table?
    Top row/period of bottom section.
  77. Where are Actinide elements located on the periodic table?
    Bottom row/period of the bottom section.
  78. Where are Main Group elements located on the periodic table?
    • Draw a box from Hydrogen (H) to Barium (Ba).
    • Draw a box from Helium (He) to Indium (In).
  79. Where are metals located on the periodic table?
    Every element minus Hydrogen (H) to the left of the zig-zag line formed from the metalloids, also including the Lanthanide and Actinide series.
  80. Where are nonmetals located on the periodic table?
    Every element to the right of the zig-zag line formed by the metalloids, diagonal line from Carbon (Ca) to Radon (Rn) up to Helium (He).
  81. Where are metalloids located on the periodic table?  How many are there total?
    • The zig-zag line from Boron (B) to Astatine (At), also including Germanium (Ge) and Antimony (Sb).
    • There are 7 total elements.
  82. What does the term "family" mean in the periodic table?
    Family is synonymous with Group and Column.
  83. Which elements form cations when forming ionic compounds?
    Metals and metalloids.
  84. Which elements form anions when forming ionic compounds?
    Nonmetals.
  85. All ionic compounds are _______.
    solids
  86. List properties of ionic compounds in terms of electrical conductivity.
    • Dissolved in water solution conducts electricity well.
    • As a solid, does not conduct electricity.
  87. What is the difference between a binary acid and an oxyacid?
    Binary acids have no oxygen, oxyacids do.
  88. Name the oxyacid: H2SO4
    sulfuric acid

    "ate" becomes "ic", add "acid".
  89. Name the oxyacid: H2SO3
    sulfurous acid

    "ite" becomes "ous", add "acid".
  90. Name the binary acid: HCl
    hydrochloric acid

    "ide" becomes "ic", add "acid".

    • hydrochloric acid
    •   H      Cl
  91. What does (aq) mean?
    Aqueous, which means "dissolves in water".
  92. What format is used to name binary acids?
    hydro + [base name of nonmetal + ic] + acid
  93. What format is used for oxyacids with oxyanions ending in -ite?
    [base name of oxyanion + -ous] + acid
  94. What format is used for oxyacids with an oxyanion ending in -ate?
    [base name of oxyanion + ic] + acid
  95. When naming acids, when is the preceding H cation named, and when is it not named?
    • H is named as hydro for binary acid formulas.
    • H is omitted when naming oxyacid formulas.
  96. Given the formula of the compound and the appropriate molar masses, how do you find the Mass Percent Composition of a compound?
    • .                              Mass of X in a sample
    • mass % of elem. X = ---------------------------
    •                                    Mass of sample

    multiply by 100 to get percent out of 100.
  97. What is percent F in AlF3?
    • % F = 3(19.00 g/mol)
    •          ------------------   x   100 = 68%
    •               84 g/mol


    % Al = 100% - 68% = 32%

    • g/mol F = 3(19.00)
    • g/mol Al = 26.98
    • g/mol AlF3 = 3(19.00) + 26.98 = 84 g/mol
  98. How do you find the Empirical Formula of a set of elements (i.e. 1.78 g N and 4.05 g O)?
    You need to get the mass of each element given and convert it to moles of that element.

    NO is the raw formula.  

    1.78 g N = .127 mol N

    4.05 g O = .253 mol O

    So:

    N.127O.253

    Multiply by a number that gives you whole number subscripts:

    8(N.127O.253) = N1O2 = NO2
  99. When calculating an Empirical Formula, what do you do when you end up with something like this:  C4.538H13.59N2.268  ?
    Divide all subscripts by the smallest subscript:

    • 4.538        13.59       2.268
    • ------         ------       -------
    • 2.268        2.268       2.268

    Which gives new subscripts of:

    C2H6N1

    • Because of N1, C2 and H6 cannot be reduced further.
  100. When calculating a Molecular Formula given a mass and an empirical formula, how do you solve it:  284.77 g/mol, CCl
    Find n.

    • n =             mass of sample
    •        --------------------------------------
    •        molar mass of empirical formula

    • n = 284.77
    •       --------  =  6
    •        47.46

    6(CCl) = C6Cl6
  101. What is a formula unit?
    NaCl for example is a molecular/covalent compound.  There is no 1 Na atom paired with 1 Cl atom; They repeat in all 3 dimensions, so there is no defined "molecule".  It is instead referred to as a formula unit.
  102. What is an Empirical Formula?
    An Empirical Formula gives the smallest whole-number ratio of each type of atom in a compound (subscripts).
  103. What is a Molecular Formula?
    A formula for a compound that gives the specific number of each type of atom in a molecule.

    It is always a whole-number multiple of the Empirical Formula:

    Empirical Formula x n, where n = 1, 2, 3...
  104. What is a Structural Formula?
    A two-dimensional representation of molecules that not only shows the number and type of atoms, but also how the atoms are bonded together:

    • H -- O
    •        |
    •       H
  105. What signs signify a reaction has taken place when two substances are mixed?
    • change in color
    • heat and/or light emission
    • absorption of heat
    • formation of a solid when two solutions are mixed
    • formation of a gas when two solutions or a liquid and a solid are mixed
  106. What does (aq) mean?
    aqueous; dissolves in water
  107. What does (s) mean?
    solid
  108. What does (l) mean?
    liquid
  109. What does (g) mean?
    gas
  110. In a chemical equation, what are reactants and what are products?
    Reactants are what you started with and products are what you ended with (what was produced):

    • CH4 + O2 ---->  CO2 + H2O
    • reactants            products

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