Matter and Minerals
Card Set Information
Matter and Minerals
All silicate minerals contain which two elements?
An atom's mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in the its nucleus?
Calcite and dolomite are both carbonate minerals
Calite and halite react with dilute acids to evolve carbon dioxide.
Graphite and diamond have the same chemical compositions and different chemical structures.
In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?
Ruby and shapphire are red and clue forms of the mineral __________.
The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes in known as ___________.
What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight?
What is the name given to an atom that gains or loses electrons in a chemical reaction?
What defines minerals.
1. Naturally occurring
2. Generally inorganic
3 Solid substance
4 Orderly crystalline structure
5 definite chemical composition that allows for some variation
Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)?
Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?
The smallest particles that cannot be chemically split.
have an electrical charge of +1
Have an electrical charge of -1
Have no charge
Ionic Bond: Electrons transferred
The attraction of oppositely charged ions to one another producing an electrically neutral ionic compound.
Covalent Bond: Electrons sharing
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more valence electrons between a pair of atoms.
Metallic Bonds: Electrons free to move
The valence electrons are free to move from one atom to another so that all atoms share the available valence electrons.
Optical properties of minerals
Luster, ability to transmit light, color, streak, shape or habit, strength
Most common mineral group.
Accounts for 90 percent of the earth's crust.
Less common, but valuable
carbonates, sulfates, and halides
Light colored silicates
Feldspar, quartz, muscovite, clay minerals
Dark silicates or ferromagnesian silicates
Contain iron ions and/or magnesium
Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, garnet
Calcite, dolomite, halite, gypsum, hematite, magnetite, galena, chalcopyrite, fluorite.