Matter and Minerals

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  1. All silicate minerals contain which two elements?
    silicon, oxygen
  2. An atom's mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6.  How many neutrons are in the its nucleus?
  3. Calcite and dolomite are both carbonate minerals
  4. Calite and halite react with dilute acids to evolve carbon dioxide.
  5. Graphite and diamond have the same chemical compositions and different chemical structures.
  6. In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?
  7. Ruby and shapphire are red and clue forms of the mineral __________.
  8. The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes in known as ___________.
  9. What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight?
  10. What is the name given to an atom that gains or loses electrons in a chemical reaction?
  11. What defines minerals.
    • 1. Naturally occurring
    • 2. Generally inorganic
    • 3 Solid substance
    • 4 Orderly crystalline structure
    • 5 definite chemical composition that allows for some variation
  12. Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)?
  13. Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?
  14. Atoms
    The smallest particles that cannot be chemically split.
  15. Protons
    have an electrical charge of +1
  16. Electrons
    Have an electrical charge of -1
  17. Neutrons
    Have no charge
  18. Ionic Bond: Electrons transferred
    The attraction of oppositely charged ions to one another producing an electrically neutral ionic compound.
  19. Covalent Bond: Electrons sharing
    A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more valence electrons between a pair of atoms.
  20. Metallic Bonds: Electrons free to move
    The valence electrons are free to move from one atom to another so that all atoms share the available valence electrons.
  21. Optical properties of minerals
    Luster, ability to transmit light, color, streak, shape or habit, strength
  22. Silicates
    • Most common mineral group.
    • Accounts for 90 percent of the earth's crust.
  23. Non-silicates
    • Less common, but valuable
    • Includes
    • ¬†carbonates, sulfates, and halides
  24. Light colored silicates
    Feldspar, quartz, muscovite, clay minerals
  25. Dark silicates or ferromagnesian silicates
    • Contain iron ions and/or magnesium
    • ¬†Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, garnet
  26. Non-silicate minerals
    Calcite, dolomite, halite, gypsum, hematite, magnetite, galena, chalcopyrite, fluorite.
Card Set:
Matter and Minerals
2014-02-23 22:37:11

Chapter 3
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