Biological Sciences

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Biological Sciences
2010-07-12 14:43:15

bio qs
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  1. Amino acids contain nitrogen (t or f)
  2. depolarization of the axon is the movement of ____ ions ____ (in or out)
    sodium ions rush into the neuron during depoolarization
  3. Bicarbonate ions in the blood help maintain
    pH of the blood
  4. alkohols can be converted to alky halides by.....
    HBr (or HCl, etc. )
  5. What kind of free radical is most stable?
    a tertiary free radical is the most stable
  6. Blood pH is normally
  7. An________ has two oxygen atoms with single bonds to the same carbon atom
  8. An __________ is a constitutional isomer of the ketone, meaning the enol form of something and the ketone form of that something must have the same molecular formula but differ in the placement of a single proton.
  9. A decarboxylation reaction would remove a ________ from the reactant.
  10. a molecule with a carbon that contains two bonds to oxygen is more_________than a molecule with a single bond to oxygen.
  11. _________ is the transformation of a compound with one molecular formula into a compound with the same molecular formula but a different structure
  12. ______ should have both a double bond (en) and an alcohol (ol).
  13. ______________ have the same molecular formula but different structures.
  14. osteoclasts
    take away bone mass, release more ca into the blood
  15. osteoblasts
    build up bone mass
  16. The most reactive alcohol in an sn1 will generate ___________
    a stable cabocation intermediate (i.e. tertiary)
  17. During inspiration, the diaphragm and the external intercostal rib muscles ______.
  18. During inspiration, the diaphragm and the external intercostal rib muscles contract. This causes elevation of the rib cage, expanding the chest and decreasing the pressure inside the _______ cavity
  19. Vitamin D helps the body absorb ____
  20. When calcium in the blood is low....
    the body will increase the level of parathyroid hormone. parathyroid hormone increases the number of osteoclasts which are responsible for breaking down bone, thus releasing calcium into to the blood stream
  21. calcitonin
    reduces bone resorption. it is released if there is alot of calcium in the blood so the activity of osteoclasts is less needed.
  22. where is calcitonin produced?
    in the thyroid
  23. where is parathyroid produced and what does it do?
    parathyroid makes your body produce more osteoclasts to break down bone and release more calcium into the blood. it is mad in the parathyroid glands which are located right behind the thyroid.
  24. Non polar molecules are _____ soluble (water or lipid)
  25. what would happen if you did not have parathyroid glands?
    you would have very low levels of ca in your blood and this would mess up the membrane potential for the neurons which relies on the presence of extracellular calcium. so you would have severe nervous and muscular system problems.
  26. products of kinetic control in ochem reactions are identified because they have a __________
    lower energy of activation (form faster)
  27. __________ is a hormone that aids in the regulation of blood pressure—it is a mineral corticoid secreted by the adrenal gland.
  28. What causes aldosterone secretion?
    Aldosterone is secreted in response to low sodium concentration.
  29. ______ is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to low blood sugar that stimulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis;
  30. insulin
    secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood sugar. it makes the cells take up the sugar in the blood
  31. thyroxine
    secreted by the thyroid in order to regulate metabolism
  32. glomerulus
    As blood enters the kidney, it first enters the glomerulus, which isa bundle of capillaries.
  33. blood pressure forces plasma into Bowman’s capsule—the __________ acts as a strainer, allowing filtration of smaller molecules and fluid into the Bowman’s capsule
  34. all of the filtration in the kidney occurs in the _________
  35. __________ is the site of reabsorption of ions like sodium and chloride, and also water. It is also the site of secretion of urea
    The loop of Henle
  36. _____________ is the site of sodium reabsorption and proton and potassium ion secretion.
    distal convoluted tubule
  37. ___________ is the site of resorption of amino acids, glucose, water, sodium, and chloride
    proximal convoluted tubule
  38. A ______ always has the formula Rn–COOH. When it’s deprotonated, it has the general structure Rn–COO–Na+.
    an organic acid
  39. The _______ portion of the pancreas is the portion recognized as part of the digestive system—it secretes a number of proteolytic enzymes (proteo– for proteins and –lytic for lysis, or breaking) into the pancreatic duct (exocrine) that leads to the small intestine
  40. Bile salts are secreted by the ____ and stored in the _______
    liver; gall bladder
  41. Gastric juices are produced by the____
  42. mesoderm gives rise to _________
    muscles, the skeleton, and the internal organs, including heart and blood vessels
  43. ectoderm
    The epidermis, lens of the eye and nervous system are derived from the ectoderm
  44. endoderm
    The endoderm gives rise to the linings of the gut and respiratory system
  45. Explain the Renin Angiotensin system fully.
    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance.When blood volume is low, the kidneys secrete renin. Renin stimulates the production of angiotensin. Angiotensin causes blood vessels to constrict, resulting in increased blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water into the blood. This increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure.If the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is too active, blood pressure will be too high.
  46. edema
    result of too much interstitial fluid
  47. converts ammonia to urea
    the liver
  48. alpha cells secrete
  49. beta cells secrete
  50. menstrual cycle graph when there is a spike in LH and FSH
  51. FSH
    • promotes the growth of a follicle in the ovary
    • secreted by ANTERIOR PITUITARY
    • follicle stimulating hormone
    • first part of menstrual cycle
  52. What do follicular cells do?
    build up the endometrium to get it ready for implantation of the fertilized egg
  53. WHat does LH do?
    in mid cycle, a bunch of LH gets produced and causes the corpeus luteum to forma and initiates ovulation which is when the ovarian follicle ruptures and lets go of the ovum
  54. corpus luteum funxn.
    produces progesterone and this makes estrogen work harder and build up the endometrium even more
  55. What does the HPA axis regulate?
    • the hypothamalamus secretes vasopressin and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) when you are under stress
    • CRH and vasopressin make the pituitary secrete ACTH
    • ACTH makes the adrenal gland make glucocoritcoid (aka cortisol) a stress hormone.
    • this is a negative feedback loop. the more cortisol will go back and inhibit the release of vasopressin and CRH from the hypothalamus.
  56. diastole
    the bp when the ventricles are relaxing
  57. systole
    contraction of venticles
  58. in what order do the larynx pharynx and trachea appear?
    alphabetical as you go down the throat: larynx, pharynx, trachea
  59. What is ADH? where produced?
    produced in the liver, ADH breaks down alcohol. alcohol dehydrogenase.
  60. Sympathetic nervous system and what does it do to what body part? WHat neurotransmitter is involved?
    • Acetylcholine
    • fight or flight
    • Eye-Dilates pupil
    • Heart-Increases rate and force of contraction
    • Lungs-Dilates bronchioles
    • Digestive tract-Inhibits peristalsis
    • Kidney-Increases renin secretion
    • Penis-Promotes ejaculation
  61. Para sympathetic nervous system and what does it do?
    • SLUDD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation
    • rest and relax functions
  62. What is the nephron>
    the filter units of the kidneys
  63. proximal convuluted tubules reabsorb
    water, glucose, amino acid. vitamins, potassium
  64. peritubular capillaries
    recieve ions from the proximal tubules
  65. descending loop of henle
    allows only water to leave the filtrate. it is the first section
  66. ascending loop of henle
    allows only sodium to leave the tubule
  67. distal convuluted tubule
    secretion of uric acid, H+ ions, from the capillaries into the tubule occurs here
  68. ADH acts on
    convoluted tubule to cause more sodium to be reabsorbed and thus more water so bp goes up and urine is more concentrated (less water)
  69. the hypothalamus regulates
    • The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst,[1] fatigue, and circadian cycles.
    • also first part of the HPA axis
  70. boiling point
    • 1.)look for is hydrogen bonding, so your looking or F,O,N bonded to a hydrogen.
    • 2.) Look for polar functionality
    • 3.) Look for larger molecule
    • 4.) look for straightest chain (instead of branching)Basically go down that checklist, if you have a tie, (two alcohols) go to the next one, if its absent or another tie, go to the next one. Once you find a difference you have found the higher boiling point. I also don't think the MCAT would try to trip you up with a gigantic non-polar molecule vs. Methanol, as that would be difficult to gauge.
  71. what does peptidyl transferase do?
    it makes peptide bonds form
  72. What do T lymphocytes do?
    act against the body's own cells that have been inhabited by a fungus or virus.
  73. Antibodies are produced by __________ derived from b lymphocytes
    plasma cells
  74. The cerebellum does...
    • motor coordinations, hand eye coordinations, balance, and timing of rapid movements.
    • alcohol affects the cerebellum, hence drunks stumble and have bad coordination
  75. What focuses light onto the retina?
    the cornea and the lense. both of which are concave lenses.
  76. trace pathway of blood
    superior vena cava to the right atrium to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the lungs to the pulmonary veins to the left atrium to the left ventricle to the aorta