Magma, igneous rocks, and intrusive activity
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A volcanic rock that is extremely vesicular and glassy.
The extrusive equivalent of diorite.
The extrusive equivalent of gabbro.
The extrusive equivalent of granite.
An open cavity in a volcanic rock that was filled by a gas bubble when the lava was still mainly liquid.
The sizes, shapes, and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock.
Igneous rock with the highest silica content.
Igneous rock with the lowest silica content.
Felsic or granitic composition
High silica content
Mafic or basaltic composition
low silica content
Aphanitic igneous rock texture
- Fine grained texture
- crystals can't be seen with the naked eye
Phaneritic igneous texture
- minerals can be seen with the naked eye.
Porphyritic igneous texture
Large phenocrysts embedded in ground mass
Vesicular igneous texture
Voids left by gas bubbles.
Glassy igneous texture
Molten rock ejected into the atmosphere that cools quickly and becomes solid without forming grains.
Pyroclastic igneous texture
- Consolidation of individual rock fragments ejected during explosive volcanic eruptions.
- tuff or welded tuff
Pegmatitic igneous texture
Exceptionally coarse grained igneous rock, which most of the crystals are more that 1 centimeter in diameter.
granitic (felsic) igneous rocks
- Granite(intrusive)/ rhyolite (extrusive)
- obsidian (extrusive)
Andesitic (intermediate) rocks
basaltic (mafic) rocks
- tuff/welded tuff: small ash and glass particles
- breccia: composed mainly of particles larger than ash
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