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  1. Endocrine system
    The collection of cells glands and tissues of an organism that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream.
  2. Hormones
    A class of regulatory biochemicals produced in particular parts of organisms by specific cells then transported by the bloodstream to other parts of the body
  3. Endocrinology
    Branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system.
  4. Endocrine glands
    Glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, into the blood rather than though a duct.the main are pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas,ect.
  5. Exocrine glands
    Sweat glands, salivary, liver excretes it's essential product by way of a duct.
  6. Receptors
    molecule usually found inside or on the surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell.
  7. lipid soluble hormones
    steroid derived from cholesterol
  8. water soluble hormones
    Amin synthesized by modifying certain amino acids
  9. target cells
    a cell that has receptors for signaling molecule like a hormone or drug or focus for contact via virus phagocyte nerve ending etc.
  10. function of hormones
    to maintain a function and respond to certain changes in the bodies environment
  11. first messenger
    hormone that binds to an exterior receptor on a cell to initiate intracellular activity
  12. second messenger
    substance that is released in the reaction to a hormone and brings about a response by the cell
  13. Cyclic AMP
    Cyclic mononucleotide of adenosine formed from ATP and is responsible for intercellular mediation of hormonal effects on cells
  14. transport proteins
    • 1) make lipid soluble hormones water-soluble temporarily
    • 2) slow the passage of small hormone molecules to the filtering mechanism in the kidneys slowing the rate of hormone loss through urine
    • 3) provide a Ready Reserve of hormone already present in the bloodstream
  15. mechanism of action of lipid soluble hormones
    • 1) lipid soluble hormones detaches from the transport protein in the blood stream the diffuses through the interstitial fluid and into the lipid bilayer of a cell
    • 2) if the cell is a Target cell the hormone binds to and activates receptors located within the nucleus and the activated receptor hormone complex alters gene expression by turning specific genes on or off
    • 3) as DNA is transcribed mRNA is formed and leaves the nucleus to direct the synthesis of a new protein on the enzymes
    • 4) new protein alters the cell's activities caused in their response typical of the original hormone
  16. mechanism of action of water soluble proteins
    • 1) water soluble hormones the fuses through interstitial fluid and binds to the exterior receptor cells plasma membrane as the first messenger
    • 2) because of The Binding ATP is converted into cAMP inside the side of cytosol
    • 3) cAMP acting as the second messenger activate several enzymes
    • 4) activated enzymes catalyze reactions producing physiological responses
    • 5) after cAMP is deactivated the cells response
  17. permissiveness
    allowing a biological /biochemical process to occur
  18. synergism
    interactions of drug hormones such that the total of fact is greater than the sum of the individual effects
  19. antagonism
    interaction of drug hormones such that the total effect is less than the sum of the individual effects
  20. feedback loops
    • 1) negative resists a change in the body system
    • 2) positive increases the amount of a change in the body
  21. regulation of hormone secretion
    blood levels are controlled by negative feedback synthesized and released in response to humoral stimuli, neural stimuli, and hormonal stimuli
  22. hypothalamus
    region of 4 brain below thalumus coordinates ANS and the activity of the pituitary controlling body temperature thirst hunger and other homeostatic systems it is also involved in sleep and emotional activity
  23. pituitary gland
    ti si body attach to the base of the brain is the major endocrine gland important in controlling growth development and the functioning of other endocrine Systems
  24. Infundibulum
    passage connecting the middle sinus meatus with anterior ethmodial cells and the frontal sinus
  25. posterior pituitary
    composed of the infundibulum and neural lobe secretes various hormones
  26. oxytocin
    hormones secreted by the pituitary gland that most often stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth
  27. anti diuretic hormone (ADH)
    hormone that promotes retention of water by the kidneys and increases blood pressure
  28. anterior pituitary
    interior part of the pituitary gland derived from the pharynx and is glandular in nature
  29. Hypophyseal portal system
    connects the hypothalamus and the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acts as a route for releasing and inhibiting hormones
  30. growth hormone
    peptide hormone that stimulates growth reproduction and regeneration
  31. prolactin (PRL)
    hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates milk production
  32. tropic hormones
    hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target mostly produced in secreted by the anterior pituitary
  33. releasing hormones
    hormone produced by the hypothalamus that accelerates secretion of a given hormone
  34. inhibiting hormones
    that inhibits the secretion of hormones
  35. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates production of thyroid hormones
  36. Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
    hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
  37. follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)
    hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that promotes the formation of ova or sperm
  38. lutenizing hormone(LH)
    hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovulation in females and synthesis of the androgen in males
  39. melanocyte stimulating hormone(MSH)
    hormone secreted by pituitary gland involved and changes and pigmentation
  40. insulin like growth factors (IGF`S)
    one of two polypeptides similar in structure to insulin secreted during fetal development or childhood and mediate growth hormone
  41. growth hormone-releasing hormone(GHRH)
    releasing factor that accelerates secretion of growth hormone by the Pituitary gland
  42. growth hormone inhibiting hormone(GHIH)
    hormone secretion of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland
  43. thyroid gland
    large ductless glands in the neck that secretes hormones regulating growth and development through the rate of metabolism
  44. follicles
    small secretory cavity or gland
  45. Colloid
    a substance made up of a single substance dispersed throughout another substance
  46. Thyroid hormone
    hormone produced by the thyroid increases increases ATP production accelerates body growth enhances cholesterol secretion contribute to the development of nervous systems
  47. T4
    more of it released than T3
  48. T3
    more potent than T4
  49. formation and storage of thyroid hormone
    created when iodine is attached to tyrosine and stored in the thyroid until blood levels get low enough to require it
  50. calcitonin
    hormone secreted by the thyroid that lowers blood pressure
  51. parafollicular cells(Ccells)
    neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid with the primary function of secreting calcitonin
  52. the parathyroid gland
    I'm all endocrine glands above or inside thyroid that produce parathyroid hormone
  53. Oxyphil cells
    cell in the parathyroid gland that has no apparent use
  54. chief cells
    produces parathyroid hormone
  55. parathyroid hormone(PTH)
    regulates calcium levels in a person's body
  56. the adrenal glands
    the small gland on top of the kidney producing hormones that help control heart rate blood pressure and how the body uses food mineral levels in the blood and other functions it's also used in stress reactions
  57. cortex
    secretes steroids
  58. medulla
    secretes epinephrine and nonepinephrine
  59. corticosteroids
    Android hormone produced in the adrenal cortex having various metabolic functions
  60. Zona glomerulosa
    outermost layer of the adrenal cortex made of glandular epithelial cells (salt)
  61. Zona fasciculata
    middle layer of the adrenal cortex made of radially arranged columnar epithelial cells (sugar)
  62. Zona reticularis
    most of the adrenal cortex made of irregularly arranged cylindrical asses of epithelial cells(sex)
  63. Mineralcorticoids(aldosterone)
    stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and regulates water and salt balance
  64. Renin angiotensin aldosterone pathway
    hormone system it regulates blood pressure and fluid balance
  65. Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    Effects of: increases breakdown of fats and proteins to generate blood glucose
  66. Gonadocorticoids(sex hormone)
    may affect the onset of puberty pubic and auxiliary hair and sex drive
  67. epinephrine and nonepinephrine
    adrenaline and noradrenaline
  68. the pancreas
    secretes beta and alpha cells
  69. islet of Langerhans
    secretes hormones of the pancreas
  70. alpha cells
    secretes glucagon in response to lower level of glucose
  71. beta cells
    produce insulin
  72. glucagon
    increases blood sugar
  73. insulin
    decreases blood sugar by making cell absorbs sugar otherwise It would stay in the bloodstream
  74. hypoglycemia
    deficiency of glucose in the blood
  75. hyperglycemia
    too much glucose in the blood
  76. ovary
    female reproductive organ in which estrogen and progesterone are produced
  77. estrogen
    development and maintenance of female characteristics
  78. progesterone
    stimulate the uterus to repair for pregnancy
  79. testes
    this is testosterone
  80. testosterone
    stimulates the development of mail secondary sexual characteristics
  81. pineal gland
    a pea-sized mass of tissue behind the third ventricle secreting melatonin
  82. melatonin
    aids with sleep
  83. other hormone-producing structures
    adipose cells pockets of cells in the walls of the small intestine stomach kidneys and heart
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