Integument

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Author:
glparker86
ID:
263564
Filename:
Integument
Updated:
2014-03-01 20:06:05
Tags:
Histology
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Description:
Histology
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  1. What percentage of weight does the skin make up ?
    16%
  2. What is the skin composed of ?
    • Epidermis 
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  3. Name some epidermal derivatives ?
    Hair , nails , sebaceous and sweat glands
  4. What are the three primary functions of skin ?
    • Protection
    • Regulating of Body temperature 
    • Sensory Reception
  5. What is the basic structure of the skin ?
    • Epidermis 
    • Basement Membrane 
    • Dermis 
    • Hypodermis
  6. What makes up the epidermis layer of the skin ? ( 6 layers )
    • Stratum Corneum
    • Stratum Lucidum
    • Stratum Granulosom
    • Stratum Spniosum
    • Stratum Basale
    • Stratum Germinativum
  7. What is the Hypodermis layer also called ?
    Subcutaneous layer
  8. What makes up the Dermis ?
    Papillary layer , Reticular layer
  9. What is the origin of the epidermis ?
    ectoderm
  10. What is the origin of the dermis ?
    endoderm
  11. What is the origin of hair , nails , sebaceous , and sweat glands ?
    germinative cells from the "epidermis"
  12. What is the origin of pigment cells ?
    Neural Crest
  13. The epidermis is what type of epithelial tissue ?
    Stratified squamous epithelial
  14. Where are the oldest skin cells located in the layer of skin ?
    Outermost is the oldest
  15. Name the stratum layers of the epidermis of the skin in order , superficial layer first ?
    • Stratum Corneum
    • Stratum Lucidum 
    • Stratum Granulosum
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Germinativum
  16. In the Stratum Basale(Stratum Germinativum) how are the cells attached laterlly ? What type of epithelial shape makes up this region ? What are the cytoplasm filled with ?
    Desmosomes

    Columnar Epithelial 

    Tonofilaments , Mitochondria , Ribosomes
  17. What type of epithelial shapes makes the stratum spinosum layer ? What are the "prickle cells " What is the stratum spinosum + stratum germinativum called ?
    Irregular shaped cells 

    Spiny projections (Artifacts)

    Stratum Malpighii
  18. How many layers of flatten cells are in the Granulosum ? are the long axes parallel to the skin ? Does this stratum have an increased amount of AA's ?
    3 to 5 layers 

    Yes

    Yes
  19. Where is stratum lucidum usually found ? Does the epithelial cells in the area contain nuclei ?
    Palms and soles (thick soles)

    No
  20. What is another name for the Stratum Corneum ?
    Stratum Disjunctum
  21. In the Corneum layer , are there organelles present ? What type of cell make this layer tough ?
    No ,  because it is very dead tissue  

    Keratinized epithelial cells
  22. What are the three main structures seen in the Hypodermis , these are apart of the subcutaneous tissue ?
    • Pacinian Corpuscles 
    • Large Blood Vessels
    • Much Fatty Connective Tissue
  23. What is the purpose of the Arterial Plexi ? Discuss the "Rate Cutaneum " , "Rate Subcapillare " , " Papillary Loops "
    Supply blood to the epidermis layers.

    Rate Cutaneum is at the dermal , subcutaneous junction and supplies (Hair , sweat glands , and dermal structures)

    Rate Subcapillare are at the reticular / papillary junction . arises from the cutaneum

    Papillary loops arise from the subcapillare level and feed each dermal papillae
  24. In terms of the venous plexus , where is the Subcapillary plexus , Mid-reticular plexus , and Deep plexus  ?
    Subcapillary = mingled with the subcapillare at the reticular /papillary junction a

    Mid-reticular plexus = between the cutaneum and subpapillare 

    Deep plexus = rate cutaneum
  25. What is the " Glomus " important for ?
    It is the Aterio-venous anastomosis that aids the body in thermoregulation , it is in palmer and plantar skin , mostly in finger tips and toes
  26. What are nerve endings in the in the epidermis for ?
    Pain sensation
  27. What are encapsulated nerve endings in the dermal papillae for ?
    • Pacinian corpuscle = pressure
    • Meissner corpuscle = touch
  28. What are Merkel nerve endings for ?
    oval receptor cells found in the skin of vertebrates that have synaptic contacts withsomatosensory afferents. They are associated with the sense of light touch discrimination of shapes and textures.
  29. What do melanocytes do ?
    they are cells for pigment
  30. What are Langerhan's cells ?
    trap antigens and then send to lymph nodes
  31. Sweat can be found in thick and thin skin and are called ? Where are they not found ?
    eccrine 

    Except the - Glans penis , Labia minora , Clitoris , Lip Margins
  32. What do the dark sweat cells produce ?
    What do clear cells sweat produce ?
    protein polysaccharides 

    NaCl , urea , uric acid , ammonia , water
  33. Where can apocrine cells be found ?
    Groin , axilla (armpit) , and perianal regions
  34. What are the "ceruminous glands " ?
    glands of auditory canal
  35. Where can sebaceous glands be found ? Where are they usually not ? What type of secretion is it ? (Holocrine , Mesocrine , Apocrine )
    Scalp , Face , mouth , anus

    Palms and soles of feet 

    Holocrine
  36. What are the steps to remove a sebaceous cyst ?
    • -Injection of local anaesthetic 
    • -Elliptical incision with scalpel 
    • -Removal 
    • -Final suture line

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