Chapter 15

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Author:
Steven23
ID:
263573
Filename:
Chapter 15
Updated:
2014-02-24 00:29:16
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EMT
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Description:
Shock and Resuscitation
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  1. Shock
    Inadequate tissue perfusion
  2. Hypovolemic Shock
    Shock that is caused from a low blood volume
  3. Distributive Shock
    Associated with a decrease in intravascular volume caused by massive systemic vasodilation and an increase capillary permeability
  4. Cardiogenic Shock
    Caused by insufficient pump function of the heart

    Myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, abnormal cardiac rhythm, overdose on drugs that depress the pumping function of the heart such as beta blockers or calcium channel blockers
  5. Obstructive Shock
    Results from a condition that obstructs forward blood flow

    • Pulmonary Embolism: a large clot that obstructs blood flow in the lungs
    • Tension pneumothorax
    • Pericardial Tamponade
  6. Metabolic or Respiratory Shock
    A dysfunction in the ability of oxygen to diffuse into the blood, be carried by hemoglobin, off-load at the cell, or be used effectively by the cell for metabolism
  7. Hemorrhagic Hypovolemic Shock
    Results from the loss of whole blood from the intravascular space
  8. Nonhemorrhagic Hypovolemic Shock
    Caused by the loss of fluid from the intravascular space
  9. Burn Shock
    A specific form of nonhemorrhagic hypovolemic shock resulting from a burn injury. Burns may interrupt the integrity of the capillaries and vessels and allow them to leak plasma and plasma proteins
  10. Anaphylactic Shock
    A type of distributive shock.

    Chemical mediators that are released in the anaphylactic reaction cause massive and systemic vasodilation
  11. Septic Shock
    Another type of distributive shock

    Results from an infection that releases bacteria or toxins in the blood, causing the vessels throughout the body to dilate and become permeable
  12. Neurogenic Shock
    Distributive shock

    A spinal cord injury may damage the sympathetic nerve fibers that control vessel tone below the level of injury
  13. Alpha1
    • Contraction of the muscles controlling the iris
    • Contraction of vascular smooth muscle causing vasoconstriction
    • Stimulation of sweat glands
  14. Beta1
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased speed of impulse through conduction system
    • Increased force of contraction
  15. Beta2
    • Bronchial smooth muscle dilation
    • Skeletal muscle contractility
  16. Compensatory Shock
    Able to maintain a near normal blood pressure and perfusion of the vital organs

    • Pulse increases
    • Respiratory rate increases
    • Skin signs (pale, cool, clammy)
    • drop in blood pressure and perfusion
  17. Decompensatory Shock
    An advanced stage of shock in which the body's compensatory mechanisms are no longer able to maintain a blood pressure and perfusion of the vital organs
  18. Irreversible Shock
    The stage in which, regardless of the intervention, the patient outcome is death.
  19. Resuscitation
    Bringing the patient back from a potential or apparent death
  20. Cardiac Arrest
    Occurs when the ventricles of the heart are not contracting or when the cardiac output is completely inefficient and no pulse can be felt
  21. Sudden Death
    When the patient dies within 1 hour of the onset of the signs and symptoms
  22. Adult Chain of Survival
    • Immediate recognition and activation
    • Early CPR
    • Rapid defibrillation
    • Effective advanced life support
    • Integrated post-cardiac-arrest care
  23. Pediatric Chain of Survival
    • Prevention of arrest
    • Early high-quality CPR performed by bystanders
    • Rapid activation of EMS or other emergency medical responders
    • Effective advanced life support and rapid transport to an appropriate medical facility
    • Integrated post-cardiac-arrest care
  24. Ventricular Fibrillation
    V-Fib is a disorganized cardiac rhythm that produces no pulse or cardiac output
  25. Ventricular Tachycardia
    V-Tach is a very fast heart rhythm that is generated in the ventricle instead of the sinoatrial node in the atrium
  26. Asystole
    The absence of electrical activity and pumping action in the heart
  27. Pulseless Electrical Activity
    PEA the heart has an organized rhythm but either the heart muscle is so weakened that it fails to pump or the heart muscle doesn't respond to the electrical activity, or the circulatory system has lost so much blood that there is nothing to pump

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